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Assessing the energy efficiency of fossil fuel in ASEAN

1Department of Defence Science, Faculty of Defence Science and Technology, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3Department of Logistics Management and Business Administration, Faculty of Defence Studies and Management, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

4 Department of Maritime Science & Technology, Faculty of Defence Science and Technology, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Received: 24 Jul 2023; Revised: 5 Sep 2023; Accepted: 15 Sep 2023; Available online: 22 Sep 2023; Published: 1 Nov 2023.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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The world's industries, transportation systems, and households rely heavily on fossil fuels despite their limited availability and high carbon content. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to improve fossil fuel energy efficiency in order to facilitate the shift towards a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. This paper employs a slacks-based measure network data envelopment analysis model with undesirable outputs to assess the efficiencies of fossil fuel energy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries during a span of seven years, specifically from 2015 to 2021. The inclusion of undesirable outputs in this study is important because it allows for a more realistic assessment of efficiency by considering factors like CO2 emissions, which are undesirable outcomes associated with fossil fuel use. The datasets utilised in this study are sourced from the U.S. Energy Information Administration and the open data website of Our World in Data. Based on the findings, it can be observed that Singapore and the Philippines have demonstrated outstanding performance in maximising the utilisation of fossil fuels. In contrast, Myanmar exhibits the lowest level of efficiency in this analysis. By identifying top-performing countries in terms of fossil fuel efficiency, it is possible to implement measures to boost efficiency in under-performing countries. This can be achieved through the promotion and adoption of cleaner energy alternatives, specifically renewable energy sources that exhibit a low or negligible carbon footprint. These findings offer significant contributions to policymakers exploring sustainable energy usage, environmental stewardship, and the formulation and execution of comprehensive strategies that aim to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions arising from the consumption of fossil fuels in the ASEAN region.

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Keywords: energy efficiency; fuel fossil; ASEAN; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); ranking
Funding: Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia under contract UPNM/2021/GPJP/STG/4

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