Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources
Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)
Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made.
Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online
How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016) Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1),15-24.http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24
- Afa, J. T.; & Anerih, V. I. E. (2013). Proper energy mix: A solution to stable power supply in Nigeria, Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(13), 93 – 101.
- Ajayi, O. O. (2013). Sustainable energy development and environmental protection: Implications for selected states in West Africa, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 26, 532 – 539
- Akinbami, J.; & Lawal, A. (2010). Opportunities and challenges to electrical energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction in Nigeria’s building sector. Proceedings Cities and Climate Change Workshop, Midrand, South Africa, pp.345 – 365.
- Akpan, U.; & Isihak, S. (2013). Electricity access in Nigeria: Is off-grid electrification using solar photovoltaic panels economically viable?, Proceedings IEEE African Conference, Mauritius, 9 – 11 September.
- Barth, B.; Mayer, J.; Trennpohl, N.; & Bruckmann, R. (2015). Framework assessment for the photovoltaic business opportunities in Brazil 2014.
- Elusakin, J.E.; Ajide, O. O.; & Diji, J. C. (2014). Challenges of sustaining off-grid power generation in Nigerian rural communities, African Journal of Engineering Research, 2(2), 51 – 57.
- Emodi, N. V.; & Yusuf, S. D. (2014). Integrating renewable energy and smart grid technology into the Nigerian electricity grid system, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 5, 220 – 238.
- Energy Commission of Nigeria (2003). National Energy Policy. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Abuja.
- Energy Commission of Nigeria (2005). Renewable energy master plan, Final draft report, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Abuja.
- Eronini, N. (2014). Tha adoption of photovoltaic systems among industries and residential houses in Southern Nigeria. Masters Thesis, Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund, Sweden.
- Ezema, I. C. (2015). Profiling the environmental sustainability of residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria using life cycle assessment, PhD Thesis, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.
- Federal Government of Nigeria (2009). Report of the Vision 2020 National Technical Working Group, Abuja.
- Federal Ministry of Power (2015), National Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy (NREEEP), Federal Republic of Nigeria.
- Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) (2014). Global Wind Statistics 2013.
- Gorini, R. (2014). Brazilian energy efficiency market: using energy efficiency indicators: Strategy Proposal. www.cepal.org/drni/noticias/1/54071/Brazil.pdf. (Accessed 12/09/2015).
- GREET (2010), The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation Model, GREET1.8d.1. http://greet.es.anl.gov/ (accessed 08/01/2016).
- Hofstrand, D. (2008), Energy Measurements and Conversions, File C6-86, University Extension, Iowa State University. www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm. (accessed 08/01/2016).
- IINAS (2015), Development of the Primary Energy Factor of Electricity Generation in the EU-28 from 2010 – 2013, International Institute for Sustainability Analysis and Strategy, Darmstadt, Germany.
- Ilesanmi, A. O. (2010). Urban sustainability in the context of Lagos mega city, Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 3(10), 240 -252.
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC (2007). Fourth assessment report: Climate change 2007. IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK
- IRENA (2011), Renewable Energy Country Profiles Africa, International Renewable Energy Agency.
- Jeje, B. (2013). Green buildings and low energy houses as adaptation tools for climate change in Lagos State, Paper 5th Lagos State Climate Change Summit, Eko Hotel, Lagos, March 13 – 15.
- KPMG (2013). A guide to the Nigerian power sector. KPMG Advisory Services, KPMG, Nigeria.
- Lagos Bureau of Statistics (2013), Digest of Statistics 2013, Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget, Lagos State Government, Nigeria, Ikeja, Lagos.
- Lagos State Government , LASG (2012a). Consultation Document for the development of a renewable energy policy, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Lagos State Government, Nigeria, Lagos
- Lagos State Government LASG (2012b). Lagos State investor handbook: A guide to business and investment in Lagos State, Nigeria.
- Luomi, M. (2014). Sustainable energy in Brazil: Reversing past achievements or realizing future potentials. OIES Paper SP34, The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford, UK.
- Moula, M. M. E.; Maula, J.; Hamdy, M.; Fang, N.; & Lahdelma, R. (2013). Researching social acceptability of renewable energy technologies in Finland. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 2, 89 – 98
- Nasirov, S.; Silva, C.; & Agostini, C. A. (2015). Investors’ perspective on barriers to the deployment of renewable energy sources in Chile. Energies, 8, 3794 – 3914.
- National Bureau of Statistics (2010). Annual abstracts of statistics 2010, Federal Republic of Nigeria.
- Newborne, P.; and Welham, B. (2014). Joining the grid: Sustainable energy in Brazil. Development Progress Case Study Report, Overseas Development Institute, UK.
- Obodeh, O.; & Esabunor, T. (2011). Reliability assessment of WRPC gas turbine power station, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, 3(8), 286 – 292.
- Ogunleye, I. O.; & Awogbemi, O. (2011). Constraints to the use of solar photovoltaic as a sustainable power source in Nigeria, American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 2(1), 11 – 16.
- Okedu, K. E.; Uhunmwangho, R.; & Promise, W. (2015). Renewable energy use in Nigeria: The challenges and opportunities in mountainous and riverine regions, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 5(1), 222 – 229.
- Otegbulu, A. C. (2011). Economics of green design and environmental sustainability, Journal of Sustainable Development, 4, 240 – 248.
- Oyedepo, S. O.; Fagbenle, R. O.; Adefila, S. S.; & Adavbiele, S. A. (2014). Performance evaluation and economic analysis of a gas turbine power plant in Nigeria, Energy Conservation and Management, 79, 431 – 440.
- Paulsen, J. S.; & Sposto, R. M. (2013). A life cycle energy analysis of social housing in Brazil: Case study for the program “My house my life”, Energy and Buildings, 57, 95 – 102.
- Ramesh, T.; Prakash, R.; & Shukla, K. K. (2013). Life cycle energy analysis of a multifamily residential house: A case in Indian context, Open Journal of Energy Efficiency, 2, 34 – 41.
- Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H. H.; & Jamaluddin, M. Y. (2007). An application of energy and exergy analysis in residential sector of Malaysia, Energy Policy, 35(2), 1053 – 1063.
- Sambo, A. S. (2010). Renewable energy development in Nigeria, Paper at the World Future Council Strategy Workshop on Renewable Energy, Accra, Ghana, 21 – 24 June.
- Sangroya, D.; & Nayak, J. K. (2015). Development of wind energy in India, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 5(1), 1 – 13.
- Shaaban, M.; & Petinrin, J. O. (2014). Renewable energy potentials in Nigeria: Meeting rural energy needs, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29, 72 – 84.
- Sood, R.; Aggarwal, R. K.; Mahajan, P. K.; Bhardwaj, S. K.; & Sharma, S. (2014). Estimation of domestic energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in Mid Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India, Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 3(1), 141 – 147.
- Spors, F. (2011). Suppressed demand: Definition and consideration of different approaches to address it in CDM methodologies, UNFCCC Standardisation Workshop, Carbon Finance Unit, World Bank, June.
- Sriwannawit, P.; & Laestadius, S. (2013). Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand, International Journal of Energy and Environment, 4(1), 49 – 58.
- Surahman, U.; & Kubota, T. (2012a). Development of a simplified LCA model for residential buildings in Indonesia – A pilot survey in Bandung, AIJ Journal of Technical Design, 18(40), 1003 – 1008.
- Surahman, U.; & Kubota, T. (2012b). Life cycle energy and CO2 emissions in unplanned residential buildings of Indonesia: A case study in Bandung, Proceedings 28th PLEA Conference, Lima, Peru, 7 -9 November.
- Taylor, P.; Lavange d’ Ortigue, O.; Trudeau, N.; & Francoeur, M. (2008). Energy efficiency indicators for public electricity production from fossil fuel, IEA Information Paper, International Energy Agency.
- UN Habitat (2008). State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009. London, Earthscan.
- United Nations Development Programme UNDP (2010). Promoting energy efficiency in residential and public sector in Nigeria, Nigeria-EE Appliances Project Document, UNDP.
- United Nations Environment Programme UNEP (2007). Buildings and Climate Change: Status, challenges and opportunities. UNEP.
- US Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2008). Energy efficiency trends in residential and commercial buildings, US Department of Energy, Washington DC.
- USEIA (2015), Country Analysis Brief: Nigeria, US Energy Information Administration.
- Vossenaar, R.; & Jha, V. (2010). Deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings: What are trading opportunities for developing countries. Global Platform on Climate Change Trade and Sustainable Energy, Issue Paper No. 11, Internation Centre for Sustainable Development.
- World Bank (2013), Electric power Consumption (kWh per capita). The World Bank, Washington DC.
- World Bank, (2014), Access to electricity (% of population). The World Bank Group, Washington DC.
- World Resources Institute (2012). Green house gases calculation tools for stationary emission sources, World Resources Institute, Washington DC.
- Yuan, X.; Wang, X. & Zuo, J. (2013). Renewable energy in buildings in China: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 24 1 – 8.
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc. , will be allowed only with a written permission from International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the International Journal of Renewable Energy Development are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.