skip to main content

Analgesic Profile in Intensive Observation Room (Ruang Observasi Intensif/ ROI) Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya

1Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

2Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga/Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia

3Department of Anatomy Histology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia

Received: 28 Oct 2022; Published: 31 Mar 2023.

Citation Format:

Introduction: Pain is a condition that the majority of critical care patients will possibly suffer at some point during their stay in the intensive care unti (ICU). In both medical and surgical ICU patients, the incidence of considerable pain is still 50% or greater. Analgesic administration is considered one of the most effective pain managements. While useful, it can cause detrimental effects if not used according to its indications and regulations.

Objective: To obtain the analgesic profile used in intensive observation room (ruang observasi intensif/ROI) Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya.

Methods: This study is a retrospective descriptive study with 537 medical records met the inclusion criteria.

Result: The most frequent analgesic used is metamizole (44.41%) and paracetamol (16.08%) while ketamine was used the least (0.24%). Most commonly used analgesic adjuvants is phenytoin (6.12%). The amount of single drug administration (52.70%) is more frequent than multimodal analgesic (47.30%). Metamizole with paracetamol is the most popular analgesic combination (20.74%), followed by metamizole with tramadol (14.17%), and metamizole with fentanyl (12.99%). The most common procedures recorded are obstetrics and gynaecological (29.98%), cranial and general surgery with the same result (21.42%), and orthopaedic (12.29%). 205 samples with Wong-Baker FACES Pain Ratings Scales stated that there is an increase in patients who do not experience pain after administration of analgesics (N=25 to N=132), patients that underwent mild pain decreased (N=134 to N=65), and patients with moderate and severe pain also decreased (N=43 to N=8 and N=3 to N=0 respectively).

Conclusion: Non-opioid analgesic dominates the analgesic profile in ROI Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya compared to opioids that generally used the most worldwide. Giving analgesics to patients has been proven successful in reducing the pain degree.


Note: This article has supplementary file(s).

Fulltext View|Download |  common.other
Ethical Clearance
Type Other
  Download (119KB)    Indexing metadata
 Copyright Transfer Agreement
Type Copyright Transfer Agreement
  Download (211KB)    Indexing metadata
Keywords: analgesic; intensive observation room (ROI); medicine; non-opioid; opioid

Article Metrics:

  1. Raja SN, Carr DB, Cohen M, Finnerup NB, Flor H, Gibson S, et al. The revised International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain: concepts, challenges, and compromises. Pain. 2020;161(9):1976–82
  2. Moore, R., Wiffen, P., Derry, S., Maguire, T., Roy, Y. and Tyrrell, L., 2015. Non-prescription (OTC) oral analgesics for acute pain - an overview of Cochrane reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,
  3. de Jong A, Molinari N, de Lattre S, Gniadek C, Carr J, Conseil M, et al. Decreasing severe pain and serious adverse events while moving intensive care unit patients: A prospective interventional study (the NURSE-DO project). Crit Care. 2013;17(2):9–12
  4. Vázquez, M., Pardavila, M., Lucia, M., Aguado, Y., Margall, M. and Asiain, M., 2011. Pain assessment in turning procedures for patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. Nursing in Critical Care, 16(4), pp.178-185
  5. Go, R., Cole, B. and Broglio, K., 2013. Managing Pain in Intensive Care Units. [online] Practical Pain Management. Available at: < care-units>
  6. Marino, P. and Sutin, K., 2007. The ICU book. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  7. Hariharan U, Garg R. Sedation and Analgesia in Critical Care. J Anesth Crit Care Open Access. 2017;7(3):1–6
  8. Ghlichloo I, Gerriets V. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). StatPearls; 2021
  9. Schweickert WD, Kress JP. Strategies to optimize analgesia and sedation. Crit Care. 2008;12(SUPPL. 3):1–10
  10. Patel, S. and Kress, J., 2012. Sedation and Analgesia in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 185(5), pp.486-497
  11. Soliman HM, Mélot C, Vincent JL. Sedative and analgestic practice in the intensive care unit: The results of a European survey. Br J Anaesth [Internet]. 2001;87(2):186–92. Available from:
  12. Helander EM, Menard BL, Harmon CM, Homra BK, Allain A V., Bordelon GJ, et al. Multimodal Analgesia, Current Concepts, and Acute Pain Considerations. Curr Pain Headache Rep [Internet]. 2017;21(1). Available from:
  13. Miró J, de la Vega R, Solé E, et al. Defining mild, moderate, and severe pain in young people with physical disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2017;39(11):1131-1135. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2016.1185469
  14. Gerbershagen HJ, Aduckathil S, van Wijck AJM, Peelen LM, Kalkman CJ, Meissner W. Pain Intensity on the First Day after Surgery. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(4):934–44
  15. Norton-Old KJ, Yuen N, Umstad MP. An Obstetric Perspective on Functional Bowel Obstruction After Cesarean Section: A Case Series. J Clin Gynecol Obstet. 2016;5(1):53–7
  16. Araujo AM, Gómez M, Pascual J, Castañeda M, Pezonaga L, Borque JL. Treatment of pain in the oncology patient. An Sist Sanit Navar [Internet]. 2004;27 Suppl 3:63–75. Available from:
  17. Venara A, Neunlist M, Slim K, Barbieux J, Colas PA, Hamy A, et al. Postoperative ileus: Pathophysiology, incidence, and prevention. J Visc Surg [Internet]. 2016;153(6):439–46. Available from:
  18. Khansari M, Sohrabi M, Zamani F. The Useage of Opioids and their Adverse Effects in Gastrointestinal Practice: A Review. Middle East J Dig Dis [Internet]. 2013;5(1):5–16. Available from:
  19. Santini MF, Rosa RA da, Ferreira MBC, Fischer MI, Souza EM, Só MVR. Comparison of two combinations of opioid and non-opioid analgesics for acute periradicular abscess: A randomized clinical trial. J Appl Oral Sci. 2017;25(5):551–8
  20. Beck DE, Margolin DA, Babin SF, Russo CT. Benefits of a Multimodal Regimen for Postsurgical Pain Management in Colorectal Surgery. Ochsner J. 2015;15(4):408-412

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-03-02 17:45:15

No citation recorded.