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Teknik Anestesia Epidural Dalam Operasi Herniotomi pada Pasien Atrial Septal Defect dengan Hipertensi Pulmonal

Departemen Anestesiologi dan Terapi Intensif, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Udayana/RSUP Prof. Dr. I.G.N.G Ngoerah, Denpasar, Indonesia

Received: 29 Aug 2023; Revised: 8 Nov 2023; Accepted: 9 Nov 2023; Available online: 30 Nov 2023; Published: 17 Nov 2023.

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Abstract

Latar Belakang: Atrial septal defect (ASD) merupakan kelainan jantung asianotik yang paling sering terjadi, sekitar 10% dari pasien dewasa dengan kelainan jantung kongenital. Atrial septal defect (ASD) di klasifikasikan menjadi 4 tipe berdasarkan bagian atrium septum yang gagal terbentuk, yaitu ostium sekundum (85%), ostium primum (10%), sinus venosus (5%) dan defek koronari sinus (jarang).

Kasus: Laki laki usia 55 tahun dengan kasus hernia inguinalis lateralis dekstra reponible dengan ASD dan hipertensi pulmonal derajat sedang. Pasien dilakukan insersi epidural kateter di L4-L5 setelah di konfirmasi dengan loss of resistance dengan saline dan test dose. Regimen epidural yang diberikan bupivacaine 0,25% + lidocaine 1% volume 10 mL. Intraoperatif diberikan titrasi norepinephrine dengan dosis titrasi 0,15-0,3 mcg/kgBB/menit dan tirasi dobutamine 2,5-5 mcg/kgBB/menit. Pengobatan postoperatif analgesia pengobatan epidural bupivacaine 0,0625% + morfin 0,5 mg volume 10 mL tiap 12 jam, dan parasetamol 500 mg tiap 6 jam tablet untuk obat analgesia.

Pembahasan: Teknik anestesi epidural dipilih karena memiliki onset yang lebih lama dan hemodinamik variasi yang lebih kurang dibandingkan dengan teknik anestesi spinal atau kombinasi teknik spinal-epidural. Sedangkan teknik general anestesi tidak dipilih karena berisiko terhadap resistensi vaskular pulmonal dan dapat mengubah arah shunting. Prinsip dari penanganan ASD adalah untuk mempertahankan cardiac output dan menghindari adanya penurunan dari resistensi sistemik vaskular. Mempertahankan resistensi sistemik vaskular berdsarkan dengan mean arterial pressure sehingga menghindari adanya perubahan arah shunt.

Kesimpulan: Pada laporan kasus ini dapat kami simpulkan bahwa teknik anestesi epidural dapat diterapkan secara aman pada kasus herniotomi dengan komorbid ASD dengan hiperetensi pulmonal.

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Keywords: atrial septal defect; epidural; herniotomi; hipertensi pulmonal; penyakit jantung asianotik

Article Metrics:

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