Isolation of Alkaloid Compounds from Ethanol Extract of Rimpang Galang Merah (Alpinia purpurata (Vielli) K. Schum) and nanoparticle production from its Alkaloid Extract. Comparative Study of Antibacterial Properties on Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia
Isolation of alkaloid compounds from ethanol extract of red galangal rhizomes to compare their antibacterial properties with extracts formed into nanoparticles has been performed. The isolation of the alkaloid compounds was performed successively by salting using (i) hydrochloric acid (HCl) to pH 3 (when in ethanol) and using (ii) ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) to pH 10 (when in chloroform). The alkaloid concentrated extract was obtained after chloroform was evaporated using a rotary evaporator. This alkaloid extract was then carried out by TLC silica gel GF254 using chloroform eluent: ethyl acetate (9: 2) to obtain a specific alkaloid type as a single/pure compound. Test of alkaloid purity successfully isolated by one-dimensional or two-dimensional TLC using various types of eluents with varying degrees of polarity, ie acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and chloroform: ethyl acetate mixture (9: 2). Isolates of pure alkaloids were analyzed using UV-Vis spectrophotometers), FTIR and (LC-MS). The obtained alkaloid isolates were isokuinolin group with UV-visible absorption characteristics at maximum wavelength (λmaks) of 212 nm, 227 nm and 261 nm. The alkaloid isolate also showed the presence of functional groups -OH, -C-H, C = O, C = C, C = N, C-N, and C-O with molecular weight of 262.90 g/mol. The production of ethanol extract nanoparticles containing alkaloid-containing red galangal (EEAlkNPs) was performed using a top-down approach using ultrason (40 kHz, 2x50 watt) for 10 minutes. The EEAlkNPs size was determined by the dynamic light scattering method (DLS) using the Particles size analyzer (PSA) tool and obtained an average particle size of 220.2 nm. The antibacterial properties of EEAlkNPs were tested by disc diffusion method for the culture of S.aureus and E.coli bacteria. It is known that the antibacterial properties of EEAlkNPs are relatively larger than the original ethanol extract at the same concentration, ie, 2000 parts per million (bpj) or g / L.
- Narayan Das Prajapathi, S. S. Purohit, Arun K. Sharma, Tarun Kumar, A handbook of medicinal plants: A complete source book, Agrobios, India, 2003.
- KP Kochuthressia, S John Britto, MO Jaseentha, L Joelri Michael Raj, SR Senthilkumar, Antimicrobial efficacy of extracts from Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum. against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1, 6, (2010) 1249-1252 http://dx.doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.6.1249.1252
- Chinthamony Arul Raj, Paramasivam Ragavendran, Dominic Sophia, Muthaiyan Ahalliya Rathi, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan, Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of Alpinia purpurata, Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 10, 4, (2012) 263-268 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(12)60053-3
- Ayu Ni’mah Azifa, Dewi Kusrini, Enny Fachriyah, Identifikasi Senyawa Sitotoksik dalam Ekstrak Kloroform Daun Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) Menggunakan GC-MS, Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, 17, 1, (2014) 23-26
- Ika Pratiwi Khosimah Adinata, Khairul Anam, Dewi Kusrini, Identifikasi Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Fraksi Aktif Daun Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) dan Uji Aktivitas Larvasida terhadap Larva Nyamuk Aedes aegypti, Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, 16, 2, (2013) 42-45
- KR Subash, Bhaarathi G Muthulakshmi, Rao N Jagan, Vargheese Cheriyan Binoy, Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents, International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, 2, 1, (2013) 93-100
- Hasnah Mohd Sirat, Md Liamen, Chemical constituents of Alpinia purpurata, Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, 3, 1, (1995) 67-71
- Ratna Susilaningsih, Isolasi, Identifikasi dan Uji Toksisitas Senyawa Alkaloid Fraksi Etil Asetat Rimpang Lengkuas Merah (Alpinia galanga), Kimia, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang
- Ravichandran Veerasamy, Tiah Zi Xin, Subashini Gunasagaran, Terence Foo Wei Xiang, Eddy Fang Chou Yang, Nelson Jeyakumar, Sokkalingam Arumugam Dhanaraj, Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using mangosteen leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 15, 2, (2011) 113-120 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2010.06.004
- R. Kelmani Chandrakanth, C. Ashajyothi, A. K. Oli, C. Prabhurajeshwar, Potential Bactericidal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised from Enterococcus Species, Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 30, 3, (2014) 1253-1262 http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/ojc/300341
- Huanhuan Li, Quansheng Chen, Jiewen Zhao, Khulal Urmila, Enhancing the antimicrobial activity of natural extraction using the synthetic ultrasmall metal nanoparticles, Scientific reports, 5, (2015) 11033 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep11033
- Vadivel Subramanian, Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Alpinia purpurata rhizome (Vieill), International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, 4, (2016) 601-607
- Robert M Silverstein, G Clayton Bassler, Terence C Morrill, Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds, Wiley, New York, (1981) 196
- Inbar Yariv, Anat Lipovsky, Aharon Gedanken, Rachel Lubart, Dror Fixler, Enhanced pharmacological activity of vitamin B12 and penicillin as nanoparticles, International journal of nanomedicine, 10, (2015) 3593
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi (JKSA) and the Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University as the publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. Reproduce any part of this journal, its storage in the database or its transmission by all forms or media is permitted without the need for written permission from JKSA. However, it should be cited as an honor in academic manners
JKSA and the Chemistry Department of Diponegoro University and the Editor make every effort to ensure that there are no data, opinions, or false or misleading statements published in JKSA. However, the content of the article is the sole and exclusive responsibility of each author.
The Copyright Transfer Form can be downloaded here: [Copyright Transfer Form - Indonesian] [Copyright Transfer Form - English]. The copyright form should be signed originally and send to the Editorial Office in the form of original mail, scanned document or fax :
Adi Darmawan, Ph.D (Editor in Chief)
Editorial Office of Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi (JKSA)
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro UniversityJl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia 50275