Isolation of Alkaloid Compounds from Ethanol Extract of Rimpang Galang Merah (Alpinia purpurata (Vielli) K. Schum) and nanoparticle production from its Alkaloid Extract. Comparative Study of Antibacterial Properties on Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jksa.21.1.1-7
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Isolation of alkaloid compounds from ethanol extract of red galangal rhizomes to compare their antibacterial properties with extracts formed into nanoparticles has been performed. The isolation of the alkaloid compounds was performed successively by salting using (i) hydrochloric acid (HCl) to pH 3 (when in ethanol) and using (ii) ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) to pH 10 (when in chloroform). The alkaloid concentrated extract was obtained after chloroform was evaporated using a rotary evaporator. This alkaloid extract was then carried out by TLC silica gel GF254 using chloroform eluent: ethyl acetate (9: 2) to obtain a specific alkaloid type as a single/pure compound. Test of alkaloid purity successfully isolated by one-dimensional or two-dimensional TLC using various types of eluents with varying degrees of polarity, ie acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and chloroform: ethyl acetate mixture (9: 2). Isolates of pure alkaloids were analyzed using UV-Vis spectrophotometers), FTIR and (LC-MS). The obtained alkaloid isolates were isokuinolin group with UV-visible absorption characteristics at maximum wavelength (λmaks) of 212 nm, 227 nm and 261 nm. The alkaloid isolate also showed the presence of functional groups -OH, -C-H, C = O, C = C, C = N, C-N, and C-O with molecular weight of 262.90 g/mol. The production of ethanol extract nanoparticles containing alkaloid-containing red galangal (EEAlkNPs) was performed using a top-down approach using ultrason (40 kHz, 2x50 watt) for 10 minutes. The EEAlkNPs size was determined by the dynamic light scattering method (DLS) using the Particles size analyzer (PSA) tool and obtained an average particle size of 220.2 nm. The antibacterial properties of EEAlkNPs were tested by disc diffusion method for the culture of S.aureus and E.coli bacteria. It is known that the antibacterial properties of EEAlkNPs are relatively larger than the original ethanol extract at the same concentration, ie, 2000 parts per million (bpj) or g / L.

Keywords

Alpinia pupurata; alkaloid; isoquinoline; alkaloid nanoparticles; ethanol extract alkaloid

  1. Vatara Artanta Silalahi 
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH., Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia
  2. Enny Fachriyah  Scopus Sinta
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH., Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia
  3. Pratama Jujur Wibawa  Scopus Sinta
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH., Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia
  1. Narayan Das Prajapathi, S. S. Purohit, Arun K. Sharma, Tarun Kumar, A handbook of medicinal plants: A complete source book, Agrobios, India, 2003.
  2. KP Kochuthressia, S John Britto, MO Jaseentha, L Joelri Michael Raj, SR Senthilkumar, Antimicrobial efficacy of extracts from Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum. against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1, 6, (2010) 1249-1252 http://dx.doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.6.1249.1252
  3. Chinthamony Arul Raj, Paramasivam Ragavendran, Dominic Sophia, Muthaiyan Ahalliya Rathi, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan, Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of Alpinia purpurata, Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 10, 4, (2012) 263-268 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(12)60053-3
  4. Ayu Ni’mah Azifa, Dewi Kusrini, Enny Fachriyah, Identifikasi Senyawa Sitotoksik dalam Ekstrak Kloroform Daun Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) Menggunakan GC-MS, Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, 17, 1, (2014) 23-26
  5. Ika Pratiwi Khosimah Adinata, Khairul Anam, Dewi Kusrini, Identifikasi Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Fraksi Aktif Daun Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.) dan Uji Aktivitas Larvasida terhadap Larva Nyamuk Aedes aegypti, Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, 16, 2, (2013) 42-45
  6. KR Subash, Bhaarathi G Muthulakshmi, Rao N Jagan, Vargheese Cheriyan Binoy, Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents, International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, 2, 1, (2013) 93-100
  7. Hasnah Mohd Sirat, Md Liamen, Chemical constituents of Alpinia purpurata, Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, 3, 1, (1995) 67-71
  8. Ratna Susilaningsih, Isolasi, Identifikasi dan Uji Toksisitas Senyawa Alkaloid Fraksi Etil Asetat Rimpang Lengkuas Merah (Alpinia galanga), Kimia, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang
  9. Ravichandran Veerasamy, Tiah Zi Xin, Subashini Gunasagaran, Terence Foo Wei Xiang, Eddy Fang Chou Yang, Nelson Jeyakumar, Sokkalingam Arumugam Dhanaraj, Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using mangosteen leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 15, 2, (2011) 113-120 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2010.06.004
  10. R. Kelmani Chandrakanth, C. Ashajyothi, A. K. Oli, C. Prabhurajeshwar, Potential Bactericidal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised from Enterococcus Species, Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 30, 3, (2014) 1253-1262 http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/ojc/300341
  11. Huanhuan Li, Quansheng Chen, Jiewen Zhao, Khulal Urmila, Enhancing the antimicrobial activity of natural extraction using the synthetic ultrasmall metal nanoparticles, Scientific reports, 5, (2015) 11033 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep11033
  12. Vadivel Subramanian, Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Alpinia purpurata rhizome (Vieill), International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, 4, (2016) 601-607
  13. Robert M Silverstein, G Clayton Bassler, Terence C Morrill, Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds, Wiley, New York, (1981) 196
  14. Inbar Yariv, Anat Lipovsky, Aharon Gedanken, Rachel Lubart, Dror Fixler, Enhanced pharmacological activity of vitamin B12 and penicillin as nanoparticles, International journal of nanomedicine, 10, (2015) 3593