Review: Potensi mikrobial selulase, xilanase, dan protease dalam fermentasi kopi luwak (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) secara in vitro

*Warsono El Kiyat -  Department of Food Technology, Bina Nusantara University Jakarta, Indonesia
Dessy Mentari -  Department of Nutrition & Food Technology, Surya University Banten, Indonesia
Natalia Santoso -  Department of Nutrition & Food Technology, Surya University Banten, Indonesia
Received: 6 Dec 2018; Revised: 21 Mar 2019; Accepted: 22 Mar 2019; Published: 31 Mar 2019.
Open Access Copyright 2019 Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi

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Abstract

Kopi luwak adalah kopi bernilai tinggi dengan aroma dan rasa khas, yang dihasilkan dari biji kopi yang telah difermentasi sebagian dalam sistem pencernaan luwak (Paradoxurus hermaprodithus). Tingginya permintaan kopi ini dan produksi alami yang unik berimplikasi pada praktek pemaksaan dan penyiksaan hewan luwak, serta adanya kontroversi status kehalalan produk. Fermentasi in vitro menggunakan selulase, xilanase, dan protease yang diisolasi dari kotoran luwak tampaknya dapat menjadi alternatif proses untuk menghindari masalah pelecehan hewan, menjamin kehalalan produk serta memastikan keberlanjutan produksi kopi luwak. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk meringkas dan mensintesis peran tiga enzim ini (selulase, xilanase, dan protease) dalam fermentasi in vitro kopi luwak dan pengaruhnya pada karakteristik kimia dan sensori berdasarkan hasil-hasil penelitian terbaru. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa fermentasi in vitro menggunakan selulase, xilanase, dan protease. biji kopi menghasilkan karakteristik kimia dan sensorik yang sama dengan yang dihasilkan melalui proses alami yang melibatkan hewan luwak.

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Keywords
fermentasi in vitro; kopi luwak; protease; selulase; xilanase

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