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Praktik Menyusui yang Berhubungan dengan Kejadian Stunting pada Balita di Indonesia: Telaah Literatur

*Syifa Al Janna Chairunnisa  -  Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang|Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Sri Achadi Nugraheni  -  Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang|Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Apoina Kartini  -  Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang|Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Open Access Copyright 2020 MEDIA KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.

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Abstract

Latar belakang: Masih rendahnya tingkat menyusui di Indonesia bersamaan dengan cukup tingginya kejadian stunting pada balita di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi variabel faktor praktik menyusui yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada balita di Indonesia.

Metode: Strategi pencarian literatur dalam database daring dilakukan menggunakan mesin pencarian Portal Garuda, SpringerLink, EBSCOhost, dan Google Scholar dengan kata kunci: stunting, indonesia, breastfeeding. Pembatasan ditetapkan pada artikel: artikel asli dari sumber utama dengan teks penuh, diterbitkan sepuluh tahun terakhir, berbahasa Indonesia dan/atau Inggris. Faktor praktik menyusui yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada balita di Indonesia diidentifikasi. Dari 808 artikel didapatkan 37 artikel memenuhi kriteria, diidentifikasi dan menghasilkan tiga variabel besar yaitu pelaksanaan IMD, pemberian ASI eksklusif, serta durasi menyusui (lamanya pemberian ASI dalam lingkup waktu luas).

Hasil: Variabel yang berhubungan positif dengan kejadian stunting di Indonesia yaitu pelaksanaan IMD serta pemberian ASI eksklusif. Penundaan inisiasi menyusu atau tidak melaksanakan IMD serta tidak memberikan ASI eksklusif menjadi faktor risiko stunting pada balita di Indonesia dengan OR tertinggi masing-masing sebesar 3,69 dan 19,50. Variabel durasi menyusui terhadap kejadian stunting di Indonesia masih inkonklusif dimana durasi menyusui yang lebih lama ditemukan berhubungan positif dan negatif dengan menjadi faktor protektif dan faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada balita di Indonesia.

Simpulan: Praktik menyusui yang ditemukan berhubungan signifikan dengan kejadian stunting pada balita di Indonesia meliputi pelaksanaan IMD, pemberian ASI eksklusif, serta durasi menyusui, menggambarkan bagaimana pentingnya praktik menyusui berinteraksi terhadap status gizi.

Kata kunci: stunting; Indonesia; praktik menyusui; balita

ABSTRACT

Title: Breastfeeding Practice Factors Associated with Stunting among Under-five Children in Indonesia: A Literature Review

Background: Low rates of breastfeeding practices in Indonesia coincide with the high incidence of childhood stunting. This review aimed to identify breastfeeding factor variables associated with stunting among under-five children in Indonesia.

Method: Online literature search strategy was conducted using Portal Garuda, SpringerLink, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar with the following keywords: stunting, Indonesia, breastfeeding. Search limits included: original and full article from primary sources, published in the last ten years, Indonesian and/or English language. Breastfeeding practice factors associated with stunting were identified. From 808 articles, 37 were obtained fulfilling the criteria. They were identified and produced three major variables, including breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration.

Result: Variables reported to be positively associated with stunting among under-five in Indonesia were breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding. Delayed breastfeeding initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding were reported to be the risk factors of stunting among under-five in Indonesia with the highest OR of 3,69 and 19,50. The breastfeeding duration variable is still inconclusive, where prolonged breastfeeding was found positively and negatively associated by becoming the protective and risk factors of stunting among under-five children in Indonesia.

Conclusion: Breastfeeding practice factors found to be significantly associated with stunting in Indonesia are exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding duration, demonstrating the importance of how breastfeeding practices interact with nutritional status.

Keywords: Stunting; Indonesia; breastfeeding practices; under-five children

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Keywords: stunting; indonesia; menyusui; balita

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