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Studi Kinetika Hidrolisis Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (TKKS) Dengan Proses Fermentasi Padat Menggunakan Jamur Aspergillus niger

*Fitri Nur Kayati  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Siti Syamsiah  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Wahyudi Budi Sediawan  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Sutijan Sutijan  -  Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

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Abstract

Kinetic of hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) by Solid State Fermentation using Aspergillus niger is studied. Hydrolysis of OPEFB to simple sugars using Aspergillus niger as raw material for other products is a potential alternative of bioconversion of lignocellulose. Formulating the kinetics of hydrolysis during solid substrate cultivication is useful for effective scale up of this technology as well as for better understanding of the process. The aim of this study was to develop kinetics models to describe the solid state fermentation of OPEFB. First, OPEFB were ground and classified by size using screen, with size range of : -30+40 mesh, -40+80 mesh and -80 mesh. It turned out that the proposed based on first order reaction kinetics model can quantitatively describe the process reasionally well. Furthermore, the values of the parameters involved in the kinetics models for each size for OPEFB particle were also obtained. The smaller the particle, the larger the hydrolysis reaction rate constant would be. It means that the rate of hydrolysis increases by the reduction of the particle size. Meanwhile, the sugars consumption rate constant decreases also by the reduction of OPEFB particle size. The highest concentration of simple sugars produced in this experiment was 7,847 g/L.

Kata kunci : kinetic, Aspergillus niger,solid state fermentation, OPEFB, particle size

Hidrolisis tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) menjadi gula sederhana dengan menggunakan jamur Aspergillus niger merupakan alternatif biokonversi lignoselulosa yang potensial. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan model kinetika untuk mendiskripsikan proses fermentasi padat dengan bahan baku TKKS. Tahap pertama, TKKS digiling dan dikelompokkan sesuai ukuran dengan menggunakan ayakan,  dengan variasi ukuran antara -30+40 mesh, -40+80 mesh dan -80 mesh. Model kinetika yang telah disusun didasarkan pada reaksi orde satu. Model tersebut dapat menggambarkan secara kuantitatif proses fermentasi tersebut. Selain itu, nilai – nilai parameter dalam kinetika reaksi untuk setiap ukuran partikel juga akan diperoleh dari model tersebut. Semakin kecil ukuran partikel, semakin besar pula konstanta kecepatan reaksi hidrolisis. Sebaliknya konstanta konsumsi gula menurun seiring dengan penurunan ukuran partikel TKKS. Konsentrasi gula sederhana tertinggi yang dihasilkan dalam penelitian ini adalah sebesar 7,847% g/L.

 

Kata kunci: kinetika, Aspergillus niger, fermentasi padat, TKKS, ukuran partikel


 

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Keywords: kinetic, Aspergillus niger,solid state fermentation, OPEFB, particle size

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