Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions
Fossil fuel resources are being depleted day by day and its use affects the environment adversely. Renewable energy is one of the alternate for sustainable development and biodiesel is one of the suitable alternate which can replace the diesel. The major hurdles in the successful commercialization of biodiesel are high feedstock cost and conversion technology to reduce viscosity. The choice of raw material and biodiesel production method must depend upon techno-economical view. There are some specific regions for different types of oil availability. It is therefore required to produce biodiesel from the mixture of oils to fulfill the requirements of energy demand in a particular country according to its suitability and availability of feedstock. Karanja and Linseed crops are abundantly available in India. Biodiesel was produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils by alkaline transesterification. In this experimental study, biodiesel blends of 10%, 20% and 30% were used with diesel in a diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm with varying brake powers (loads) from 0.5 kW to 3.5kW to evaluate brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust gas temperature, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, air fuel ratio and smoke opacity. They were compared with diesel and found satisfactory. BTE was found to be 28.76% for B10 at 3.5kW load. Smoke opacity was also found to be reduced with all blends. Smoke opacity was found to be reduced up to 10.23% for B10 biodiesel blend as compared to that of diesel at 3.5kW. Experimental investigation has revealed that biodiesel produced from a mixture of Karanja and Linseed oils can be successfully used in diesel engines without any engine modification and B10 was found to be an optimum biodiesel blend in terms of brake thermal efficiency.
Article History: Received April 14th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 10th 2016; Available online
How to Cite This Article: Mohite. S, Kumar, S. & Maji, S. (2016) Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2), 163-170.
- Abbaszaadeh, A., Ghobadian, B., Omidkhah, M.R., & Najafi, G. (2012) Current biodiesel production technologies: a comparative review. Energy Conversion & Management, 63,138-148.
- Amarnath,H.K., & Prabhakaran, P. (2012) A study on the thermal performance and emission of a variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with karanja biodiesel and the optimization of parameters based on experimental data. International Journal of Green Energy, 9, 841-863.
- Atabani, A. E., Silitonga, A.S., Ong, H.C., Mahlia, T.M.I., & Masjuki, H.H. (2013) Non-edible vegetable oils: a critical evaluation of oil extraction, fatty acid compositions, biodiesel production, characteristics, engine performance and emissions production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 18, 211-245.
- Baiju, B., Naik, M.K., & Das, L.M. (2009) A comparative evaluation of compression ignition engine characteristics using methyl and ethyl esters of karanja oil. Renewable Energy, 34, 1616-1621.
- Balusamy, T. & Marappam, R. (2007) Performance evaluation of direct injection diesel engine with blends of Thevetia Peruviana seed oil and diesel. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 66, 1035-1040.
- Barnwal, B.K., & Sharma, M.P. (2005) Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9, 363-378.
- Bhuiya, M.M.K., Rasul, M.G., Khan, M.M.K., Ashwath, N., & Azad, A.K. (2016) Prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable fuel- part 1 selection of feedstocks, oil extraction technologies and conversion technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 55, 1109-1128.
- Bora, D. K., Das, L. M., & Babu, M. K. G. (2008) Performance of a mixed biodiesel fuelled diesel engine. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 67, 73-76.
- Chen,Y.H., Chiang, T.H. & Chen, J.H. (2012) An optimum biodiesel combination: Jatropha and soapnut oil biodiesel blends. Fuel, 92(1), 377-380.
- Datta, A., Palit, S. & Mandal, B. K. (2014 ) An experimental study on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fuelled with Jatropha Biodiesel and its blends with diesel. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 28 (5), 1961-1966.
- Dhar, A., & Agarwal, A. K. (2014) Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of Karanja Biodiesel in a tranportation engine. Fuel, 119,70-80.
- Dixit, S., Kanakraj, S., & Rehman, A. (2012) Linseed oil as a potential resource for biodiesel: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 4415-4421.
- Fattah, I.M.R., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Wakil, M.A., Ashraful, A.M., & Shahir, S. A. ( 2014) Experimental investigation of performance and regulated emissions of a diesel engine with Calophylum inophyllum biodiesel blends accompanied by oxidation inhibitors. Energy Conversion and Management, 83, 232-240.
- Gangil, S., Mewar, C., Singh, R. K., & Modhera, B. (2015) Influence of acid catalyst on two step transesterification of Karanja Oil with high free fatty acid. Biofuels, 6 (5-6), 377-381.
- Guzatto, R., Martini, T. L. D.,& Samios, D., (2011) The use of a modified TDSP for biodiesel production from Soybean, linseed & waste cooking oil. Fuel Processing Technology, 92 (10), 2083-2088.
- Halder, S., Sakthivel, S., Jayaraj, K.M., & Gupta, P.D. (2014) Studies of Transesterification of Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil in a packed reactor. Chemical Engineering Communications, 201, 88-101.
- Heywood, J. B. (2012) Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, 3rd reprint, Tata Mcgraw Hill.
- Imtenan, S., Masjuki, H.H., Varman, M., Fattah, I.M.R., Sajjad, H., & Arbab, M.I. (2015) Effect of n-butanol and diethyl ether as oxygenated additives on combustion emission performance characteristics of a multiple cylinder diesel engine fuelled with diesel – jatropha biodiesel blend. Energy Conversion and Management, 94, 84-94.
- Jaichandar, S., & Annamalai, K. (2012) Effects of open combustion chamber geometries on the performance of Pongamia biodiesel in a DI diesel engine. Fuel, 98, 272-279.
- Jena, P. C., Raheman, H., Kumar, G.V.P. & Machavaram, R. (2010) Biodiesel production from mixture of mahua and simarouba oils with high free fatty acids. Biomass and Bioenergy, 34,1108-1116.
- Kumar D. J. & Binnal, P. (2012) Performance evaluation of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel produced from pumpkin oil. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 71, 75-78.
- Kumar, P., Sharma, M. P., & Dwivedi, G. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, In Press, available online 7th Dec,2015.
- Kumar, R., Tiwari, P., & Garg, S. (2013) Alkali Transesterification of linseed oil for biodiesel production. Fuel, 104, 553-560.
- Martini, D. D. S., Braga, B. A., & Samios, D. (2009) On the curing of linsed oil epoxidized methyl esters with different cyclic dicarboxylic anhydrides. Polymer, 50, 2919-2925.
- Mohite, S., Kumar, S. Maji S.& Pal, A. (2016) Production of Biodiesel from a Mixture of Karanja and Linseed Oils: Optimization of process parameters.Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 7(1),12-17
- Nakpong, P., & Wootthikanokkhan, S. (2010) High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand. Renewable Energy, 35, 1682-1687.
- Ozcanli, M., & Serin, H. (2011) Evaluation of Soybean/Canola/Palm biodiesel mixture as an alternative diesel fuel, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research,70, 466-470.
- Pal, A., Kachwaha, S.S., Maji, S., & Babu, M.K.G. (2010) Thumba (Citrullus colocyntis) seed oil: a sustainable source of renewable energy for biodiesel production. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 69,384-389.
- Popa, V. M., Gruia, A., Raba, D.N., Dumbrava, D., Moldovan, C., Bordean, D., & Mateescu, C. (2012) Fatty acids composition and oil characteristics of Linseed (Linum Usitatissimun L) from Romania. Journal of Agroailimentary Processes and Technogies, 18 (2), 136-140.
- Prabhu, A. & Anand, R.B. (2015) Inhibition of NO emission by adding antioxidant mixture in Jatropha biodiesel on the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine. Frontiers in Energy, 9 (2), 238-245.
- Puhan, S., Jegan, R., Balasubbramanian, K., & Nagarajan, G. (2009) Effect of injection pressure on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of high linolenic in seed oil methyl ester in a DI diesel engine. Renewable energy, 34 (5), 1227-1233.
- Pulkrabek, W. W. (2014) Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine, II Edition, Prentice Hall.
- Raheman, H., Jena, P.C., & Jadhav, S.S. (2013) Performance of a Diesel Engine with Blends of Biodiesel (from a mixture of oils) and High-Speed Diesel. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering ,4:6
- Rath, S., Kumar, S., & Singh, R.K. (2011) Performance and emission analysis of blends of Karanja methyl ester with diese in a Compression Ignition Engine. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 32 (3), 161-166.
- Saha, R. & Goud, V.V. (2015) Ultrasound assisted transesterification of high free fatty acids Karanja oil using heterogeneous base catalysts. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 5,195-207.
- Sahoo, P.K., Das, L.M., Babu, M.K.G., Arora, P., Singh, V.P., Kumar, N.R., & Varyani, T.S. (2009) Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a tractor engine. Fuel, 88, 1698-1707.
- Sinha, S., Agarwal, A. K., & Garg, S. (2008) Biodiesel development from rice bran oil: Transesterification process optimization and fuel characterization. Energy Conversion & Management, 49, 1248-1257.
- Srithar, K., Balasuramanian, K.A., Pavanden, V. & Kumar, B.A. (2014) Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines. Journal of King Saud University, Article in Press.
- Subramanian, R., Rajandiran, G., Venkatachalam, R., Nadunchezhian, N. & Mayilsamy,K. (2011) Studies on performance and emission characteristics of multicylinder diesel engine using hybrid fuel blends as fuel, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 70, 539-543.
- Yogish, H., Chandrashekara, K. & Kumar, M.R.P. (2012) Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia. Heat and Mass Transfer, 48 (11), 1955- 1960.
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc. , will be allowed only with a written permission from International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development and Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy, Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the International Journal of Renewable Energy Development are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.