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Comparative Analysis of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Off-Grid Applications in Chad

1Department of Petroleum Management and Economics, Higher National Institute of Petroleum of Mao, Box: 4377, N'Djamena, Chad

2Laboratory of Energy, Materials, Modelling and Methods, National Higher Polytechnic School of Douala, University of Douala, PO Box: 2701, Douala, Cameroon

3Center for Energy and Industrial Environment Studies, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

4 Faculty of Exact and Applied Science, University of N'Djamena, Box: 1027, N'Djamena, Chad

5 Department of Thermal and Energy Engineering, University Institute of Technology, University of Douala, PO Box: 8698, Douala, Cameroon

6 Energy Research Unit SuD (Energy and Sustainable Development), Department of Sciences and Management of Environment, Faculty of Sciences, University of Liège, Avenue of Longwy 185, 6700 Arlon, Belgium

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Received: 9 Jun 2021; Revised: 29 Aug 2021; Accepted: 1 Sep 2021; Available online: 15 Sep 2021; Published: 1 Feb 2022.
Editor(s): Grigorios Kyriakopoulos
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
In this study, a techno-economic feasibility analysis of hybrid renewable energy systems for four household categories in rural areas of Chad was studied based on the multi-criteria assessment technique. The problem of this study is to know the best optimal solution in the technical and economic feasibility study of the decentralized mini-grids for the rural electrification of isolated villages in Chad. The main objective of the work is to assess technically, economically and environmentally the feasibility of six scenarios of hybrid systems in five isolated sites in Chad. The performance analysis involved six scenarios of possible hybrid solutions while achieving a supply-demand balance for sustainable electrification of the remote villages, using the HOMER software. The results have shown that the optimum combination of the hybrid system was the photovoltaic/battery system with a Net Present Cost (NPC) of US $ 328,146 and it was found at Etena village. The photovoltaic/Wind/Diesel/Battery hybrid configuration was the least optimum system and it has appeared in Mandelia village. In terms of energy cost, the lowest Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) was estimated at US $ 0.236/kWh in a photovoltaic/Wind/Battery configuration at Koundoul site and the highest costs US $ 0.363/kWh in the photovoltaic/Battery configuration at the Linia site. It is established that hybrid solutions can be developed to make electricity available and accessible to the population of the remote rural areas in Chad. However, it is imperative that the local government must subsidize the diesel price to promote the adaptation of the abundant renewable solutions.
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Keywords: energy access; Chad; HOMER; hybrid renewable energy system; techno-economic assessment

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