skip to main content

The effect of aeration rate and feedstock density on biodrying performance for wet refuse-derived fuel quality improvement

1The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand

2Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

3Center of Excellence on Energy Technology and Environment (CEE), Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation (MHESI), Bangkok, Thailand

4 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand

View all affiliations
Received: 2 Jul 2023; Revised: 10 Oct 2023; Accepted: 20 Oct 2023; Available online: 23 Oct 2023; Published: 1 Nov 2023.
Editor(s): Rock Keey Liew
Open Access Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Abstract

This study investigates the effect of aeration rate and feedstock density on the biodrying process to improve the quality of type 2 wet refuse-derived fuel. The aeration rate and feedstock density were varied to investigate these parameters’ effect on the system’s performance. The experiments used 0.3 m3 lysimeters with continuous negative ventilation and five days of operation. In Experiment A, aeration rates of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 m3/kg/day were tested with a feedstock bulk density of 232 kg/m3. In Experiment B, the optimum aeration rates determined in Experiment A (0.5 and 0.6 m3/kg/day) were used, and the feedstock density was varied (232 kg/m3, 250 kg/m3, and 270 kg/m3). The results showed that an aeration rate of 0.5 m3/kg/day was the most efficient for a feedstock density of 232 kg/m3; when the aeration rate was increased to 0.6 m3/kg/day, a feedstock density of 250 kg/m3 was the most effective. However, a feedstock density of 270 kg/m3 was not found to be practical for use in the quality improvement system. When the feedstock density is increased, the water in the feedstock and the water resulting from the biodegradation process cannot evaporate due to the feedstock layer’s low porosity, and the system requires an increased aeration rate. Furthermore, the increase in density scaled with increased initial volatile solid content, initial organic content, and initial moisture content, which significantly impacted the final moisture content based on multivariate regression analysis.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Waste to energy; Refuse-derived fuel; Biodrying index; Temperature integration; Alternative fuel
Funding: National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi; The Center of Excellence on Energy Technology and Environment (CEE), Ministry of Higher Education, Science

Article Metrics:

  1. Adebayo, T. S., & Akinsola, G. D. (2021). Investigating the Causal Linkage Among Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Thailand: An Application of the Wavelet Coherence Approach. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2021.32233
  2. Bhatsada, A., Patumsawad, S., Itsarathorn, T., Towprayoon, S., Chiemchaisri, C., Phongphiphat, A., & Wangyao, K. (2023). Improvement of energy recovery potential of wet-refuse-derived fuel through bio-drying process. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 25(2), 637-649. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-022-01545-z
  3. Bhatsada, A., Wangyao, K., & Patumsawad, S. (2022, October). Effect of Aeration rate on Wet-refuse-derived fuel Biodrying process for increasing Heating value and Water content reduction. In 2022 International Conference and Utility Exhibition on Energy, Environment and Climate Change (ICUE) (pp. 1-8). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUE55325.2022.10113537
  4. Büyükkeskin, İ., Tekin, S. A., Gürel, S., & Genç, M. S. (2019). Electricity Production from Wind Energy by Piezoelectric Material. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.8.1.41-46
  5. Cai, L., Chen, T. B., Gao, D., Zheng, G. D., Liu, H. T., & Pan, T. H. (2013). Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying. Water research, 47(13), 4767-4773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.03.048
  6. Chommontha, N., Phongphiphat, A., Wangyao, K., Patumsawad, S., & Towprayoon, S. (2022). Effects of operating parameters on co-gasification of coconut petioles and refuse-derived fuel. Waste Management & Research, 40(5), 575-585
  7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X211003974
  8. Colomer-Mendoza, F. J., Herrera-Prats, L., Robles-Martinez, F., Gallardo-Izquierdo, A., & Piña-Guzman, A. B. (2013). Effect of airflow on biodrying of gardening wastes in reactors. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 25(5), 865-872. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60123-5
  9. Gendebien, A., Leavens, A., Blackmore, K., Godley, A., Lewin, K., & Whiting, K. J. (2003). European Commission-Directorate General Environment: Refuse Derived Fuel, Current Practice and Perspective
  10. Hajinezhad, A., Halimehjani, E. Z., & Tahani, M. (2016). Utilization of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from urban waste as an alternative fuel for cement factory: A case study. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 6(2), 702–714. https://doi.org/10.20508/ijrer.v6i2.3170.g6837
  11. Ham, G. Y., Lee, D. H., Matsuto, T., Tojo, Y., & Park, J. R. (2020). Simultaneous effects of airflow and temperature increase on water removal in bio-drying. Journal of material cycles and waste management, 22, 1056-1066. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-020-01000-x
  12. Idris, S. S., Zailan, M. I., Azron, N., & Rahman, N. A. (2021). Sustainable Green Charcoal Briquette from Food Waste via Microwave Pyrolysis Technique: Influence of Type and Concentration of Binders on Chemical and Physical Characteristics. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2021.33101
  13. Itsarathorn, T., Towprayoon, S., Chiemchaisri, C., Patumsawad, S., Wangyao, K., & Phongphipat, A. (2022, October). The Situation of RDF Utilization in the Cement Industry in Thailand. In 2022 International Conference and Utility Exhibition on Energy, Environment and Climate Change (ICUE) (pp. 1-7). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUE55325.2022.10113510
  14. Kerdsuwan, S., Meenaroch, P., & Chalermcharoenrat, T. (2016). The novel design and manufacturing technology of densified RDF from reclaimed landfill without a mixing binding agent using a hydraulic hot pressing machine. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 70, p. 11003). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20167011003
  15. Lawrance, A., Haridas, A., Savithri, S., & Arunagiri, A. (2022). Development of mathematical model and experimental Validation for batch bio-drying of municipal solid waste: Mass balances. Chemosphere, 287, 132272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132272
  16. Li, J., Ju, T., Lin, L., Meng, F., Han, S., Meng, Y., Du, Y., Song, M., Lan, T., & Jiang, J. (2022). Biodrying with the hot-air aeration system for kitchen food waste. Journal of Environmental Management, 319, 115656. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115656
  17. Maia, G. D., Horta, A. C., & Felizardo, M. P. (2023). From the conventional to the intermittent biodrying of orange solid waste biomass. Chemical Engineering and Processing-Process Intensification, 188, 109361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2023.109361
  18. Munir, M. T., Saqib, N. U., Li, B., & Naqvi, M. (2023). Food waste hydrochar: An alternate clean fuel for steel industry. Fuel, 346, 128395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2023.128395
  19. Ngamket, K., Wangyao, K., Patumsawad, S., Chaiwiwatworakul, P., & Towprayoon, S. (2021). Quality improvement of mixed MSW drying using a pilot-scale solar greenhouse biodrying system. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 23, 436-448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-020-01152-w
  20. Ngamket, K., Wangyao, K., & Towprayoon, S. (2021). Comparative biodrying performance of municipal solid waste in the reactor under greenhouse and non-greenhouse conditions. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 9(1), 211-217. https://doi.org/10.47277/JETT/9(1)217
  21. Park, J. R., & Lee, D. H. (2022). Effect of aeration strategy on moisture removal in bio-drying process with auto-controlled aeration system. Drying Technology, 40(10), 2006-2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2021.1912080
  22. Payomthip, P., Towprayoon, S., Chiemchaisri, C., Patumsawad, S., & Wangyao, K. (2022). Optimization of Aeration for Accelerating Municipal Solid Waste Biodrying. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 11(33), 878-888. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2022.45143
  23. Petrovic, I., Kaniski, N., Hrncic, N., & Bosilj, D. (2022). Variability in the Solid Particle Density and Its Influence on the Corresponding Void Ratio and Dry Density: A Case Study Conducted on the MBT Reject Waste Stream from the MBT Plant in Marišćina, Croatia. Applied Sciences, 12(12), 6136. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126136
  24. Polprasert, C. (2007). Organic waste recycling: technology and management. IWA publishing
  25. Pudcha, T., Phongphiphat, A., Wangyao, K., & Towprayoon, S. (2023). Forecasting Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Thailand with Grey Modelling. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 21(1), 35-46. https://doi.org/10.32526/ennrj/21/202200104
  26. Rahman, A., Rasul, M. G., Khan, M. M. K., & Sharma, S. (2013). Impact of alternative fuels on the cement manufacturing plant performance: an overview. Procedia Engineering, 56, 393-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.03.138
  27. Robert E. Sommerlad, W. Randall Seeker, Abraham Finkelstein, James D. Kilgroe, Environmental Characterization of Refuse Derived Fuel Incinerator Technology, 1988 National Waste Processing Conference, Pennsylvania, (1998)
  28. Rumsey, D. J. (2015). U Can: statistics for dummies. John Wiley & Sons
  29. SCG (2021) Alternative Fuel usage. http://www.scg.com. Accessed on 5 August 2022
  30. Sen, R., & Annachhatre, A. P. (2015). Effect of air flow rate and residence time on biodrying of cassava peel waste. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 18(1), 9-29. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJETM.2015.068414
  31. Sutthasil, N., Ishigaki, T., Ochiai, S., Yamada, M., & Chiemchaisri, C. (2022). Carbon conversion during biodrying of municipal solid waste generated under tropical Asian conditions. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-021-02284-1
  32. TCMA (2016) Paris Agreement to Thailand NDC Roadmap. http://thaicma.or.th/cms/ghg-reduction/thailand-ndc-roadmap/. Accessed on 10 August 2022
  33. Tippichai, A., Teungchai, K., & Fukuda, A. Energy demand modeling for low carbon cities in Thailand: A case study of Nakhon Ratchasima province. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 12(4), 655-665. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2023.53211
  34. Tom, A. P., Pawels, R., & Haridas, A. (2016). Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content. Waste management, 49, 64-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.01.004
  35. Tun, M. M., & Juchelková, D. (2019). Drying methods for municipal solid waste quality improvement in the developed and developing countries: A review. Environmental Engineering Research, 24(4), 529-542. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.327
  36. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2016) Energy Recovery from Waste. https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/web/html/index-11.html. Accessed on 29 December 2022
  37. Wright, P., & Inglis, S. (2002). Moisture, density, and porosity changes as dairy manure is biodried. In 2002 ASAE Annual Meeting (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.10510
  38. Wulandari, F. (2022) Coal price forecast. https://capital.com/coal-price-forecast. Accessed on 14 August 2022
  39. Xin, L., Qin, Y., Lou, T., Xu, X., Wang, H., Mei, Q., & Wu, W. (2023). Rapid start-up and humification of kitchen waste composting by an innovative biodrying-enhanced process. Chemical Engineering Journal, 452, 139459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2022.139459
  40. Yang, B., Hao, Z., & Jahng, D. (2017). Advances in biodrying technologies for converting organic wastes into solid fuel. Drying Technology, 35(16), 1950-1969. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2017.1322100
  41. Yuan, J., Zhang, D., Li, Y., Chadwick, D., Li, G., Li, Y., & Du, L. (2017). Effects of adding bulking agents on biostabilization and drying of municipal solid waste. Waste management, 62, 52-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.02.027
  42. Yuan, J., Zhang, D., Li, Y., Li, J., Luo, W., Zhang, H., Wang, G., & Li, G. (2018). Effects of the aeration pattern, aeration rate, and turning frequency on municipal solid waste biodrying performance. Journal of environmental management, 218, 416-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.04.089
  43. Zaman, B., Oktiawan, W., Hadiwidodo, M., & Sutrisno, E. (2018). Bio-drying Technology of Solid Waste to Reduce Greenhouse Gas. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 73, p. 05019). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20187305019
  44. Zhang, D., Xu, Z., Wang, G., Huda, N., Li, G. and Luo, W. (2020). Insights into characteristics of organic matter during co-biodrying of sewage sludge and kitchen waste under different aeration intensities. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 20, 101117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2020.101117

Last update:

  1. Biodrying of municipal solid waste—correlations between moisture content, organic content, and end of the biodrying process time

    Dino Bosilj, Igor Petrovic, Nikola Hrncic, Nikola Kaniski. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2024. doi: 10.1007/s11356-024-32736-w

Last update: 2024-04-13 12:46:21

No citation recorded.