Premixed Combustion of Coconut Oil on Perforated Burner

*I.K.G. Wirawan -  Mechanical Engineering Department, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia
I.N.G. Wardana -  Mechanical Engineering Department, Brawijaya University, East Java, Indonesia
Rudy Soenoko -  Mechanical Engineering Department, Brawijaya University, East Java, Indonesia
Slamet Wahyudi -  Mechanical Engineering Department, Brawijaya University, East Java, Indonesia
Published: 30 Oct 2013.
Open Access
Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Original Research Article
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 504 524
Abstract

Coconut oil premixed combustion behavior has been studied experimentally on perforated burner with equivalence ratio (φ) varied from very lean until very rich. The results showed that burning of glycerol needs large number of air so that the laminar burning velocity (SL) is the highest at very lean mixture and the flame is in the form of individual Bunsen flame on each of the perforated plate hole. As φ is increased the  SL decreases and the secondary Bunsen flame with open tip occurs from φ =0.54 at the downstream of perforated flame. The perforated flame disappears at φ = 0.66 while the secondary Bunsen flame still exist with SL increases following that of hexadecane flame trend and then extinct when the equivalence ratio reaches one or more. Surrounding ambient air intervention makes SL decreases, shifts lower flammability limit into richer mixture, and performs triple and cellular flames. The glycerol diffusion flame radiation burned fatty acids that perform cellular islands on perforated hole.  Without glycerol, laminar flame velocity becomes higher and more stable as perforated flame at higher φ. At rich mixture the Bunsen flame becomes unstable and performs petal cellular around the cone flame front.

Keywords: cellular flame; glycerol; perforated flame;secondary Bunsen flame with open tip; triple flame

Article Metrics:

  1. Abdulwahid, M., Saqr, K. M., Sies, M.M. and Ujir, H. (2009) Diffusive thermal instabilities of C4H10-C3H8 /air laminar premixed flames. Diffusion-fundamentals.org, 9(8), 1-8.
  2. Alamu, O.J., Dehinbo, O. and Sulaiman, A.M. (2010) Production and testing of coconut oil biodiesel fuel and its blend. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, 16, 95-104.
  3. Alenezi, R., Leeke, G.A., Santos, R.C.D. and Khan, A.R. (2009) Hydrolysis kinetics of sunflower oil under subcritical water conditions. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 87, 867-873.
  4. Ayhan, D. (2009) Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. Energy Conversion and Management, 50, 14–34.
  5. Benjapornkulaphong, S., Ngamcharussrivichai, C. and Bunyakiat K. (2009) Al2O3-supported alkali and alkali earth metal oxides for transesterification of palm kernel oil and coconut oil. Chemical Engineering Journal, 145, 468-474.
  6. Bouaid, A., Martínez, M. and Aracil, J. (2010) Biorefinery approach for coconut oil valorisation: A statistical study. Bioresource Technology, 101, 4006–4012.
  7. Broustail, G., Seers, P., Halter, F., Moréac, G. and Mounaim-R.C. (2011) Experimental determination of laminar burning velocity for butanol and ethanol iso-octane blends. Fuel, 90, 1-6.
  8. Chaos, M., Kazakov, A., Dryer, F.L., Zhao, Z. and Zeppieri, S.P. (2005) High temperature compact mechanism development for large alkanes: n-hexadecane. 6th International Conference on Chemical Kinetics.
  9. Ishizuka S. And Sakai Y. (1986) Structure and tip-opening of laminar diffusion flames. Twenty-first Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1821-1828.
  10. Jime´nez , C. and Cuenot, B. (2007) DNS study of stabilization of turbulent triple flames by hot gases, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31, 1649-1656.
  11. Kadowaki, S., Takahashi, H. and Kobayashi H. (2011) The effects of radiation on the dynamic behavior of cellular premixed flames generated by intrinsic instability. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 33, 1153-1162.
  12. Kratzeisen, M. and Müller, J. (2010) Influence of free fatty acid content of coconut oil on deposit and performance of plant oil pressure stoves. Fuel, 89, 1583-1589.
  13. Kumar, G., Kumar, D., Singh, S., Kothari, S., Bhatt, S. and Singh C.P. (2010) Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel. Energies, 3, 43-56.
  14. Llamas, A, García-Martínez, M-J., Al-Lal, A-M., Canoira, L. and Lapuerta, M. (2012) Biokerosene from coconut and palm kernel oils: Production and properties of their blends with fossil kerosene. Fuel, 102, 483-490.
  15. Machacon, H.T.C, Shiga, S., Karasawa, T. and Nakamura H. (2001) Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with coconut oil-diesel fuel blend. Biomass and Bioenergy, 20, 63-69.
  16. Mizomoto, M. And Yoshida, H. (1987) Effects of Lewis number on the burning intensity of Bunsen flames. Combustion and Flame, 70, 47-60.
  17. Palash, S.M., Kalam, M.A., Masjuki, H.H., Masum, B.M., Fattah, I.M.R. and Mofijur M. (2013) Impacts of biodiesel combustion on NOx emissions and their reduction approaches. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 23, 473-490.
  18. Qiao, L., Gan, Y., Nishiie, T., Dahm, W.J.A. and Oran, E.S. (2010) Extinction of premixed methane/air flames in microgravity by diluents: Effects of radiation and Lewis number. Combustion and Flame, 157, 1446-1455.
  19. Recep, A., Selim, C. and Huseyin, S. (2001) The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for Diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management, 42, 529-538.
  20. Satyanarayana, M. and Muraleedharan, C. (2011) A comparative study of vegetable oil methyl esters (biodiesels). Energy, 36, 2129-2137.
  21. Singh, P.J., Khurma, J. and Singh A. (2010) Preparation, characterization, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels. Renewable Energy, 35, 2065-2070.
  22. Suresh, R, Prasad, B.D, Raman, S.M. and Nibin T. (2009), Emission Control for a Glow Plug Direct Injection CI Engine Using Preheated Coconut Oil Blended Diesel. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4 (8), 82-86
  23. Vu, T.M., Park, J., Kim, J.S., Kwon, O.B., Yun, J.H., Keel, S.I. (2011) Experimental study on cellular instabilities in hydrocarbon/hydrogen/carbon monoxide-air premixed flames. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 36, 6914-6924.
  24. Wang, W-C., Thapaliya, N., Campos A., Stikeleather, L. and Roberts, W.L. (2012) Hydrocarbon fuels from vegetable oils via hydrolysis and thermo-catalytic decarboxylation. Fuel, 95, 622–629.
  25. Wang, Y., Hu, S. and Pitz, R.W. (2009) Extinction and cellular instability of premixed tubular flames. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 32, 1141-1147.
  26. Wardana, I.N.G. (2010) Combustion characteristics of jatropha oil droplet at various oil temperatures. Fuel, 89, 659-664.
  27. Yuan, W., Hansen, A.C. and Zhang Q. (2005) Vapor pressure and normal boiling point predictions for pure methyl esters and biodiesel fuels. Fuel, 84, 943-950.