Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of Methanol Extract from Kasturi Mango Fruit (Mangifera casturi) on Caries-Causing Bacterium Streptococcus mutans

Usep Suhendar  -  Faculty of Pharmacy, Pakuan University, Indonesia
Muhammad Fathurrahman  -  Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Pakuan University, Indonesia
*Sogandi Sogandi orcid scopus  -  Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Jakarta, Indonesia
Received: 2 Aug 2019; Revised: 11 Oct 2019; Accepted: 16 Oct 2019; Published: 30 Nov 2019; Available online: 30 Nov 2019.
Open Access Copyright 2019 Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi
License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0

Citation Format:
Cover Image
Abstract
One of the problems frequently found in the oral cavity is dental caries caused by Streptococcus mutans. Thus far, dental caries is treated using antibiotics. However, the bacterium is known to be resistant to many antibiotics; hence, another alternative is needed. An alternative option is found in the Kasturi mango (Mangifera casturi). This study aims to identify the bioactive compounds of  Kasturi mango and find out the mechanism of its action in inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Kasturi mangoes were macerated using 96% methanol, then the phytochemical compounds were identified qualitatively. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using the agar diffusion method, and bioactive compounds were identified using GCMS. The results showed that the methanol extract of Kasturi mango contains alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, and saponins. In 1 gr/mL of the methanol extract of Kasturi mango fruit has an inhibitory activity against the growth of Streptococcus mutans with a zone of inhibition of ± 10 mm and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value of 25% extract. The inhibitory action is suspected to be through a mechanism where holes in the bacterial cell membrane are made. This can be seen from the results of SEM (scanning electron microscope) images showing that cell leakage or lysis has occurred. This research also, for the first time, revealed the types of bioactive compounds from the methanol extracts of Kasturi mango (Mangifera casturi) consisting of 18 compounds with the most abundance is 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural compounds, Octadecenoic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid, Phenyl 4-methyl-1-piperidine carboxylate, and Methyl linolenate.
Keywords: antibacterial; bioactive; dental caries; kasturi mango; streptococcus mutans

Article Metrics:

  1. Alhidayati Asymal, Eha Renwi Astuti and Rini Devijanti, Changes in the number of macrophage and lymphocyte cells in chronic periodontitis due to dental X-ray exposure, Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi), 51, 2, (2018) 99-103 https://doi.org/10.20473/j.djmkg.v51.i2.p99-103
  2. Sogandi Sogandi and Putu Nilasari, Identifikasi Senyawa Aktif Ekstrak Buah Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) dan Potensinya sebagai Inhibitor Karies Gigi, Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia, 9, 2, (2019) 73-81 https://doi.org/10.22435/jki.v9i2.1289
  3. Sutomo Sutomo, S Rianto and EP Setyowati, Isolation and identification of active compound of n-hexane fraction from Kasturi (Mangifera casturi Konsterm.) against antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity, Journal of Biological Sciences, 13, 7, (2013) 596-604 http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2013.596.604
  4. Eko Suhartono, Ella Viani, Mustaqim Apriyansa Rahmadhan, Imam Syahuri Gultom, Muhammad Farid Rakhman and Danny Indrawardhana, Screening of Medicinal Plant for Total Flavonoid and Antioxidant Activity in South Kalimantan of Indonesian, International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 3, 4, (2012) 297-299 http://dx.doi.org/10.18178/IJCEA
  5. K Sahira Banu and L Cathrine, General techniques involved in phytochemical analysis, International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science, 2, 4, (2015) 25-32
  6. STS Chan, W Popplewell, CJ Henrich, WM Linehan, DP Bottaro, JB McMahon, TC McKee and KR Gustafson, Isolation and Identification of Natural Products from Artocarpus communis, Planta Medica, 79, 10, (2013) PN58 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1348739
  7. Dian Yulianti, Bambang Susilo and Rini Yulianingsih, Pengaruh lama ekstraksi dan konsentrasi pelarut etanol terhadap sifat fisika-kimia ekstrak daun stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M.) dengan metode microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Jurnal Bioproses Komoditas Tropis, 2, 1, (2014) 35-41
  8. Sogandi Sogandi and Putu Nilasari, Isolation and molecular identification of Endophytic bacteria from Noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia l.) and their antibacterial activity, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 299, (2019) 012020 https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/299/1/012020
  9. K Rosyidah, SA Nurmuhaimina, N Komari and MD Astuti, Aktivitas antibakteri fraksi saponin dari kulit batang tumbuhan kasturi (Mangifera casturi), Alchemy, 1, 2, (2012) 65-69 http://dx.doi.org/10.18860/al.v0i0.1674
  10. W. W. Davis and T. R. Stout, Disc plate method of microbiological antibiotic assay. I. Factors influencing variability and error, Appl Microbiol, 22, 4, (1971) 659-665
  11. Dagmar Chudobova, Simona Dostalova, Iva Blazkova, Petr Michalek, Branislav Ruttkay-Nedecky, Matej Sklenar, Lukas Nejdl, Jiri Kudr, Jaromir Gumulec, Katerina Tmejova, Marie Konecna, Marketa Vaculovicova, David Hynek, Michal Masarik, Jindrich Kynicky, Rene Kizek and Vojtech Adam, Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 3, (2014) 3233-3255 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110303233
  12. Abdul Hannan, Samra Asghar, Tahir Naeem, Muhammad Ikram Ullah, Ijaz Ahmed, Syeda Aneela and Shabbir Hussain, Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi, Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 26, 4, (2013) 715-719
  13. Ngo Van Quang, Dang Vu Luong, Quach Minh Thu, Nguyen Tien Tai, Nguyen Quang Tam, Thanh Thi Thu Thuy and Nguyen Thi Mai Phuong, Anticaries activity of mangiferin isolated from Mangifera indica leaves in Vietnam, Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 55, 5, (2017) 623 https://doi.org/10.15625/2525-2321.2017-00519
  14. Spoorthi Banavar Ravi, Sudarshini Nirupad, Prashanthi Chippagiri and Rohit Pandurangappa, Antibacterial Effects of Natural Herbal Extracts on Streptococcus mutans: Can They Be Potential Additives in Dentifrices?, International Journal of Dentistry, 2017, Article ID 4921614, (2017) 5 https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4921614
  15. Usep Suhendar and Sogandi Sogandi, Identifikasi Senyawa Aktif Ekstrak Daun Cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum) sebagai Inhibitor Streptococcus mutans, Al-Kauniyah: Jurnal Biologi, 12, 2, (2019) 229-239
  16. Chidi Edbert Duru, Ijeoma Akunna Duru and Nkechi Kelechi Nwagbara, Potency of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (HMF) against Bacillus cereus and Proteus mirabilis, Biochemistry: An Indian Journal, 6, 2, (2012) 41-44
  17. Ummay Mahfuza Shapla, Md Solayman, Nadia Alam, Md Ibrahim Khalil and Siew Hua Gan, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in honey and other food products: effects on bees and human health, Chemistry Central Journal, 12, 1, (2018) 35 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13065-018-0408-3
  18. Zhong-hui Pu, Yu-qun Zhang, Zhong-qiong Yin, Jiao Xu, Ren-yong Jia, Yang Lu and Fan Yang, Antibacterial Activity of 9-Octadecanoic Acid-Hexadecanoic Acid-Tetrahydrofuran-3,4-Diyl Ester from Neem Oil, Agricultural Sciences in China, 9, 8, (2010) 1236-1240 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(09)60212-1
  19. Gandi Sogandi, Wan Syurya Tri Darma and Raudatul Jannah, Potential of Antibacterial Compounds from Sweet Root Extract (Glycyrrhiza glabra L) on Bacillus cereus, Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi, 22, 4, (2019) 105-111 https://doi.org/10.14710/jksa.22.4.105-111
  20. Juliana Bodoprost and Helmut Rosemeyer, Analysis of Phenacylester Derivatives of Fatty Acids from Human Skin Surface Sebum by Reversed-Phase HPLC: Chromatographic Mobility as a Function of Physico-Chemical Properties, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 8, 11, (2007) 1111-1124
  21. Chukwunonye M Ojinnaka, Kelechi I Nwachukwu and Marycolette N Ezediokpu, The Chemical Constituents and Bioactivity of the seed (Fruit) extracts of Buchholzia Coriacea Engler (Capparaceae), Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 19, 4, (2015) 795-801 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v19i4.29
  22. Tulika Tyagi and Mala Agarwal, Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents in the ethanolic extract of Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) solms, Journal of Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, 6, 1, (2017) 195-206
  23. Gaoyan Wang, Guoping Feng, Abigail B Snyder, David C Manns, John J Churey and Randy W Worobo, Bactericidal thurincin H causes unique morphological changes in Bacillus cereus F4552 without affecting membrane permeability, FEMS microbiology letters, 357, 1, (2014) 69-76 https://doi.org/10.1111/1574-6968.12486
  24. Hatice Zengin and Ayse Baysal, Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oil terpenes against pathogenic and spoilage-forming bacteria and cell structure-activity relationships evaluated by SEM microscopy, Molecules, 19, 11, (2014) 17773-17798 https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191117773

Last update: 2021-05-11 05:52:53

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-05-11 05:52:53

No citation recorded.