skip to main content

Heat Properties of Polylactic Acid Biocomposites after Addition of Plasticizers and Oil Palm Frond Microfiber

1Research Center for Biomass and Bioproduct, National Research and Innovation Agency, Cibinong Bogor, 16911, Indonesia

2Research Center for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia

Received: 29 May 2020; Revised: 14 Jul 2020; Accepted: 28 Jul 2020; Available online: 20 Aug 2020; Published: 31 Aug 2020.
Open Access Copyright 2020 Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi under

Citation Format:
Cover Image

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biopolymer that can replace thermoplastic polymers such as polypropylene (PP) in various applications due to strength, young modulus, biocompatibility, biodegradability, good clarity, oil resistance, and oxygen barrier ability. However, PLA has some drawbacks, including brittle, high glass transition temperature (Tg), and low degradation and crystallization rates. Therefore, modification is needed with the addition of nucleating agents and plasticizers to overcome these limitations of PLA. This research aims to study the effect of plasticizers and microfibril cellulose of oil palm frond (OPF) on thermal stability and to review the crystallization kinetics of PLA biocomposites. Polyethylene glycol and triacetin were used as plasticizers. Thermal analysis was performed using Thermal Gravimetry analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The crystallization kinetics study was analyzed using a modified Avrami model under non-isothermal conditions. PLAP4000 has better thermal stability than PLAP200 and PLAG with Tonset and Tmax values reaching 349.17°C and 374.68°C, respectively, which are close to pure PLA. All types of plasticizers influenced decreasing the Tg value in the range of 27–42%, whereas OPF microfiber addition contributes to a Tg reduction of 37-55 %. Crystallization kinetic study was informed for heterogeneous and simultaneous nucleation mechanisms with an n value range of about 2-3 for PLAP4000 and PLAOP4000. The crystallization rate was multiplied 4-9-fold for PLAOP200 and 2-3-fold for PLAOP4000.

Fulltext View|Download | HTML
Keywords: non-isothermal crystallization kinetics; polyethylene glycol; polylactic acid; oil palm frond microfiber; triacetin
Funding: Research Center for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Article Metrics:

  1. M. S. Huda, L. T. Drzal, M. Misra, A. K. Mohanty, 2006, Wood-Fiber-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid) Composites: Evaluation of the Physicomechanical and Morphological Properties, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 102, 5, 4856-4869
  2. Rahul M. Rasal, Amol V. Janorkar, Douglas E. Hirt, 2010, Poly(Lactic Acid) Modifications, Progress in Polymer Science, 35, 3, 338-356
  3. Maria Laura Di Lorenzo, 2005, Crystallization Behavior of Poly(L-Lactic Acid), European Polymer Journal, 41, 3, 569-575
  4. Sajjad Saeidlou, Michel A. Huneault, Hongbo Li, Chul B. Park, 2012, Poly(Lactic Acid) Crystallization, Progress in Polymer Science, 37, 12, 1657-1677
  5. Rafael A. Auras, Bruce Harte, Susan Selke, Ruben Hernandez, 2003, Mechanical, Physical, and Barrier Properties of Poly(Lactide) Films, Journal of Plastic Film & Sheeting, 19, 2, 123-135
  6. O. Martin, L. Avérous, 2001, Poly(Lactic Acid): Plasticization and Properties of Biodegradable Multiphase Systems, Polymer, 42, 14, 6209-6219
  7. B. Eling, S. Gogolewski, A. J. Pennings, 1982, Biodegradable Materials of Poly(L-Lactic Acid): 1. Melt-Spun and Solution-Spun Fibres, Polymer, 23, 11, 1587-1593
  8. R. Vasanthakumari, A. J. Pennings, 1983, Crystallization Kinetics of Poly(L-Lactic Acid), Polymer, 24, 2, 175-178
  9. W. Hoogsteen, A. R. Postema, A. J. Pennings, Gerrit Ten Brinke, P. Zugenmaier, 1990, Crystal Structure, Conformation and Morphology of Solution-Spun Poly(L-Lactide) Fibers, Macromolecules, 23, 2, 634-642
  10. L. T. Lim, R. Auras, M. Rubino, 2008, Processing Technologies for Poly(Lactic Acid), Progress in Polymer Science, 33, 8, 820-852
  11. Nurul Hani Md Zubir, Sung Ting Sam, Nik Noriman Zulkepli, Mohd Firdaus Omar, 2018, The Effect of Rice Straw Particulate Loading and Polyethylene Glycol as Plasticizer on the Properties of Polylactic Acid/Polyhydroxybutyrate-Valerate Blends, Polymer Bulletin, 75, 1, 61-76
  12. Athanasia Amanda Septevani, Samsul Bhakri, 2017, Plasticization of Poly(Lactic Acid) Using Different Molecular Weight of Poly(Ethylene Glycol), AIP Conference Proceedings, 1904, 1, 020038
  13. Bettina Dittrich, Karen-Alessa Wartig, Daniel Hofmann, Rolf Mülhaupt, Bernhard Schartel, 2015, The Influence of Layered, Spherical, and Tubular Carbon Nanomaterials' Concentration on the Flame Retardancy of Polypropylene, Polymer Composites, 36, 7, 1230-1241
  14. Kyung-man Choi, Myeon-Cheon Choi, Dong-Hun Han, Tae-Sung Park, Chang-Sik Ha, 2013, Plasticization of Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) through Chemical Grafting of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) (PEG) Via in Situ Reactive Blending, European Polymer Journal, 49, 8, 2356-2364
  15. Isabelle Pillin, Nicolas Montrelay, Yves Grohens, 2006, Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Plasticized PLA: Is the Miscibility the Only Significant Factor?, Polymer, 47, 13, 4676-4682
  16. Justine Muller, Alberto Jiménez, Chelo González-Martínez, Amparo Chiralt, 2016, Influence of Plasticizers on Thermal Properties and Crystallization Behaviour of Poly(Lactic Acid) Films Obtained by Compression Moulding, Polymer International, 65, 8, 970-978
  17. Buong Woei Chieng, Nor Azowa Ibrahim, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Mohd Zobir Hussein, 2013, Plasticized Poly(Lactic Acid) with Low Molecular Weight Poly(Ethylene Glycol): Mechanical, Thermal, and Morphology Properties, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 130, 6, 4576-4580
  18. Homero Salas-Papayanopolos, Ana B. Morales-Cepeda, Saúl Sanchez, Pierre G. Lafleur, I. Gomez, 2017, Synergistic Effect of Silver Nanoparticle Content on the Optical and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Glycerol Triacetate Blends, Polymer Bulletin, 74, 12, 4799-4814
  19. Xin-Feng Wei, Rui-Ying Bao, Zhi-Qiang Cao, Liang-Qing Zhang, Zheng-Ying Liu, Wei Yang, Bang-Hu Xie, Ming-Bo Yang, 2014, Greatly Accelerated Crystallization of Poly(Lactic Acid): Cooperative Effect of Stereocomplex Crystallites and Polyethylene Glycol, Colloid and Polymer Science, 292, 1, 163-172
  20. Xuetao Shi, Guangcheng Zhang, Thanh V. Phuong, Andrea Lazzeri, 2015, Synergistic Effects of Nucleating Agents and Plasticizers on the Crystallization Behavior of Poly(Lactic Acid), Molecules, 20, 1, 1579-1593
  21. Ali Abdulkhani, Jaber Hosseinzadeh, Saeed Dadashi, Mohammad Mousavi, 2015, A Study of Morphological, Thermal, Mechanical and Barrier Properties of PLA Based Biocomposites Prepared with Micro and Nano Sized Cellulosic Fibers, Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, 49, 7-8, 597-605
  22. Yong-Qing Zhao, Hoi-Yan Cheung, Kin-Tak Lau, Cai-Ling Xu, Dan-Dan Zhao, Hu-Lin Li, 2010, Silkworm Silk/Poly(Lactic Acid) Biocomposites: Dynamic Mechanical, Thermal and Biodegradable Properties, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 95, 10, 1978-1987
  23. Nicolas Le Moigne, Marc Longerey, Jean-Marie Taulemesse, Jean-Charles Bénézet, Anne Bergeret, 2014, Study of the Interface in Natural Fibres Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid) Biocomposites Modified by Optimized Organosilane Treatments, Industrial Crops and Products, 52, 481-494
  24. Lisman Suryanegara, Antonio Norio Nakagaito, Hiroyuki Yano, 2010, Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Microfibrillated Cellulose-Reinforced Partially Crystallized PLA Composites, Cellulose, 17, 4, 771-778
  25. M. K. Mohamad Haafiz, Azman Hassan, Zainoha Zakaria, I. M. Inuwa, M. S. Islam, M. Jawaid, 2013, Properties of Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Oil Palm Biomass Microcrystalline Cellulose, Carbohydrate Polymers, 98, 1, 139-145
  26. E. W. Fischer, Hans J. Sterzel, G. Wegner, 1973, Investigation of the Structure of Solution Grown Crystals of Lactide Copolymers by Means of Chemical Reactions, Kolloid-Zeitschrift und Zeitschrift für Polymere, 251, 11, 980-990
  27. Melvin Avrami, 1940, Kinetics of Phase Change. II Transformation‐Time Relations for Random Distribution of Nuclei, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 8, 2, 212-224
  28. Melvin Avrami, 1939, Kinetics of Phase Change. I General Theory, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 7, 12, 1103-1112
  29. Mehmet Kodal, Humeyra Sirin, Guralp Ozkoc, 2017, Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of PEG Plasticized PLA/G-POSS Nanocomposites, Polymer Composites, 38, 7, 1378-1389
  30. T. Zimmermann, E. Pöhler, T. Geiger, 2004, Cellulose Fibrils for Polymer Reinforcement, Advanced Engineering Materials, 6, 9, 754-761
  31. V. S. Giita Silverajah, Nor Azowa Ibrahim, Norhazlin Zainuddin, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Hazimah Abu Hassan, 2012, Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Epoxidized Palm Olein Blend, Molecules, 17, 10, 11729-11747
  32. L. Quiles-Carrillo, S. Duart, N. Montanes, S. Torres-Giner, R. Balart, 2018, Enhancement of the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Injection-Molded Polylactide Parts by the Addition of Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil, Materials & Design, 140, 54-63
  33. Paola Giudicianni, Giuseppe Cardone, Raffaele Ragucci, 2013, Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin Slow Steam Pyrolysis: Thermal Decomposition of Biomass Components Mixtures, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 100, 213-222
  34. Sarifah Fauziah Syed Draman, Rusli Daik, Famiza Abdul Latif, Said M. El-Sheikh, 2014, Characterization and Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra L.)–Based Cellulose, BioResources, 9, 1, 8-23
  35. Fatemeh Safdari, Pierre J. Carreau, Marie C. Heuzey, Musa R. Kamal, 2017, Effects of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) on the Morphology and Properties of Biocomposites Based on Polylactide and Cellulose Nanofibers, Cellulose, 24, 7, 2877-2893
  36. WeiDan Ding, Raymond K. M. Chu, Lun Howe Mark, Chul B. Park, Mohini Sain, 2015, Non-Isothermal Crystallization Behaviors of Poly(Lactic Acid)/Cellulose Nanofiber Composites in the Presence of CO2, European Polymer Journal, 71, 231-247
  37. S. Iannace, L. Nicolais, 1997, Isothermal Crystallization and Chain Mobility of Poly(L-Lactide), Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 64, 5, 911-919<911::AID-APP11>3.0.CO;2-W
  38. Yong He, Zhongyong Fan, Yanfei Hu, Tong Wu, Jia Wei, Suming Li, 2007, DSC Analysis of Isothermal Melt-Crystallization, Glass Transition and Melting Behavior of Poly(L-Lactide) with Different Molecular Weights, European Polymer Journal, 43, 10, 4431-4439
  39. Yonghui Li, Caihong Chen, Jun Li, Xiuzhi Susan Sun, 2012, Isothermal Crystallization and Melting Behaviors of Bionanocomposites from Poly(Lactic Acid) and TiO2 Nanowires, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 124, 4, 2968-2977

Last update:

  1. Utilization of Spent Coffee Grounds as a Sustainable Resource for the Synthesis of Bioplastic Composites with Polylactic Acid, Starch, and Sucrose

    Sri Yustikasari Masssijaya, Muhammad Adly Rahandi Lubis, Rossy Choerun Nissa, Yeyen Nurhamiyah, Pramono Nugroho, Petar Antov, Seng-Hua Lee, Antonios N. Papadopoulos, Sukma Surya Kusumah, Lina Karlinasari. Journal of Composites Science, 7 (12), 2023. doi: 10.3390/jcs7120512
  2. Thermal Properties’ Enhancement of PLA-Starch-Based Polymer Composite Using Sucrose

    Sri Yustikasari Massijaya, Muhammad Adly Rahandi Lubis, Rossy Choerun Nissa, Yeyen Nurhamiyah, Wida Banar Kusumaningrum, Resti Marlina, Riska Surya Ningrum, Jajang Sutiawan, Iman Hidayat, Sukma Surya Kusumah, Lina Karlinasari, Rudi Hartono. Polymers, 16 (8), 2024. doi: 10.3390/polym16081028
  3. Reactive blending of polylactic acid/polyethylene glycol toward biodegradable film

    Ali Salimi, Shervin Ahmadi, Mona Faramarzi, Jalal Faghihi. Macromolecular Research, 31 (9), 2023. doi: 10.1007/s13233-023-00174-1

Last update: 2024-05-22 05:28:14

No citation recorded.