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KONDISI KUALITAS AIR DAN STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS DIATOM (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) DI SUNGAI BABON

*Arif Rahman orcid scopus  -  Program Studi Manajemen Sumberdaya Perairan, Departemen Sumberdaya Akuatik, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, Indonesia
Haeruddin Haeruddin  -  Program Studi Manajemen Sumberdaya Perairan, Departemen Sumberdaya Akuatik, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, Indonesia
Abdul Ghofar  -  Program Studi Manajemen Sumberdaya Perairan, Departemen Sumberdaya Akuatik, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, Indonesia
Frida Purwanti  -  Program Studi Manajemen Sumberdaya Perairan, Departemen Sumberdaya Akuatik, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, Indonesia

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Abstract

Sungai Babon merupakan salah satu sungai di Semarang, Jawa Tengah yang dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai aktivitas manusia sehingga berpotensi menghasilkan limbah yang akan mencemari perairan. Perubahan kualitas air akibat pencemaran akan mempengaruhi persebaran dan struktur komunitas fitoplankton. Diatom (Bacillariophyceae) adalah salah satu kelompok fitoplankton yang tersebar luas di perairan karena memiliki daya adaptasi yang tinggi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kondisi kualitas air dan struktur komunitas diatom (Bacillariophyceae) di Sungai Babon. Penelitian ini dilakukan di 5 stasiun yang tersebar dari hulu hingga hilir Sungai Babon pada bulan April dan Mei 2021. Variabel kualitas air yang diukur meliputi suhu, kecerahan perairan, pH, oksigen terlarut (DO), nitrat, dan fosfat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan parameter kualitas air Sungai Babon masih sesuai dengan baku mutu PP RI No. 22 Tahun 2021 Kelas II tentang Penyelenggaraan Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup, kecuali kadar oksigen terlarut di Stasiun 5. Diatom (Bacillariophyceae) yang ditemukan di Sungai Babon berjumlah 17 genera. Diatom yang paling banyak ditemukan adalah Navicula, diikuti Synedra, Surirella, dan Melosira. Navicula adalah genus diatom yang ditemukan di semua stasiun penelitian dan memiliki kelimpahan tertinggi dengan persentase kelimpahan berkisar antara 13,82-52,83% dari kelimpahan total setiap stasiun. Diatom memiliki indeks keanekaragaman yang rendah, keseragaman tinggi (merata), dan dominansi rendah.

 

Babon River is one of the rivers in Central Java that is used for various human activities so it has the potential to produce waste that will pollute the waters. Changes in water quality will affect the distribution and structure of the phytoplankton community. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) are a group of phytoplankton that is widely distributed in waters because they have high adaptability. The purpose of this study was to determine the condition of water quality and community structure of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) in the Babon River. This research was conducted at 5 stations spread from upstream to downstream of the Babon River in April and May 2021. The water quality variables measured included temperature, water transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and phosphate. The results showed that the water quality parameters of the Babon River are still following the quality standards of PP RI No. 22 of 2021 Class II, except for dissolved oxygen levels at Station 5. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) found in Babon River are 17 genera. The most common genus was Navicula, Synedra, Surirella, and Melosira. Navicula is a genus of phytoplankton found in all stations and has the highest abundance with a percentage from 13.82 to 52.83% of the total abundance of each station. Diatoms have a low diversity index, high similarity, and low dominance.

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Keywords: diatom; fitoplankton; Navicula; pencemaran; Sungai Babon

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