skip to main content

An Experimental Investigation and Aspen HYSYS Simulation of Waste Polystyrene Catalytic Cracking Process for the Gasoline Fuel Production

1Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB), Tamilnadu, India

2Department. of Chemical Engineering, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu, India

Received: 29 Oct 2020; Revised: 22 Apr 2021; Accepted: 5 Jul 2021; Available online: 20 Jul 2021; Published: 1 Nov 2021.
Editor(s): Rock Keey Liew
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

Plastic wastes are necessary to recycle due to their disposal issues around the world. They can be recycled through various techniques i.e., mechanical reprocessing, mechanical recycling, chemical recycling and incineration. Most recycling techniques are expensive and end up in producing low-grade products excluding chemical recycling; it is an eco-friendly way to deal with plastic waste. Catalytic cracking is one of the chemical recycling methods, for converting waste plastics into liquid fuel same as commercial fuels. An experimental investigation of polystyrene catalytic cracking process was conducted with impregnated fly ash catalyst and 88.4% of liquid product yield was found as a maximum at optimum operating conditions 425 ̊C and 60 min. The liquid fuel quality was analyzed using FTIR spectra analysis, GC/MS analysis and Physico-chemical property analysis. The GC/MS analysis shows that the fly ash cracking of polystyrene leads to the production of gasoline fuels within the hydrocarbon range of C3-C24, and the aliphatic and aromatic functional compounds were detected using FTIR analysis. Moreover, the Aspen Hysys simulation of polystyrene catalytic cracking was conducted in a pyrolytic reactor at 425 ̊C and at the end of the simulation, 93.6% of liquid fuel yield was predicted. It was inferred that the simulation model for the catalytic cracking is substantial to fit the experimental data in terms of liquid fuel conversion

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Catalytic cracking; Polystyrene; Aspen Hysys simulation; Fly ash; Gasoline fuels; FTIR Perkin Elmer analyzer. .

Article Metrics:

  1. Adeniyi, A., Eletta, O., & Ighalo, J. (2018). Computer Aided modelling of Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE) Pyrolysis to produce Synthetic Fuels. Nig. J. of Tech., 37 (4), 945-949.
  2. Adil K. (2013). Studying the Utilization of Plastic waste by Chemical Recycling Method. Open J. of Appl. Sci., 3 (1), 413-420.
  3. Amoodi, N., Kannan, P., Shoabi, A., & Srinivasakannan, C. (2013). Aspen plus simulation of polyethylene gasification under equilibrium conditions. Chem. Eng. Comm., 200, 977-992.
  4. Babajide, O., Leslie, P., Nicholoss, M., Bamikole, A.,, & Farouk, A. (2010). Use of Coal Fly ash as a catalyst in the Production of Biodiesel. Petroleum & Coal., 52(4), 261-272.
  5. Christine Cleetus, Shijo Thomas and Soney Varghese. (2013), Synthesis of Petroleum-Based Fuel from Waste Plastics and Performance analysis in a CI Engine, Hindawi Publish. Corp. Jour. of Ener., 1, 1-10.
  6. Garieb Alla, M & Ali, A. (2014). Simulation and Design for process to convert plastic waste to liquid fuel using Aspen Hysys program. Integer. J. Engg. Res. Tech., 1(6), 270-274.
  7. Istadi, Suherman, S., & Buchori., L. (2010). Optimization of reactor temperature and catalyst weight for plastic cracking to fuels using response surface methodology. Bull. Chem. React. Eng. Catal., 5, 103-111.
  8. Johnson, O., Igbokwe, Olisaemeka, C., Nwwufo, & Chidiebere Nwaiwu. (2015). Effects of blend on the properties, Performance and emission of palm kernel oil biodiesel. Bio fuels., 6, 1-18.
  9. Jouhara, H., & Ahmad, D., Van den Boogaert, Katsou, Simons, S., Spencer, N. (2018). Pyrolysis of domestic based feedstock at temperatures up to 300 °C. Therm. Sci. Eng. Prog., 5, 117–143.
  10. Kumar, S., & Singh, R. (2013). Thermolysis of High-density Polyethylene to petroleum products. Hindawi pub. Corp., 1, 1-7.
  11. Lee, S., Yoon, J., Kim, J., & Park P.W,(2002), Degradation of polystyrene using Clinoptilolite catalysts. J. of appl. and anal. pyrol. Vol. 64, 71-83.
  12. Lerici, LC., Renzini, MS., & Pierella, LB. (2015). Chemical catalysed recycling of polymers: catalytic conversion of PE, PP and PS into fuels and chemicals over H-Y. Proc. Mater. Sci., 8, 297-303.
  13. Miandad, R.,. Barakat, M., Asad, Aburiazaiza, S., & Rehan, M. (2016).Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste: A review. Pro. Saf. Environ. Prot., 102, 822-838.
  14. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, (2019). Annual Report of Plastic Waste Management - Available online on:
  15. Moses, Erhianoh, C., & Edward A.. (2018). Modelling and Simulation of Waste Plastic Power Plant A Theoretical Framework. Amer. J. of Chem.Eng., 6(5), 94-98.
  16. Nisar, J., Ghulam, A., Afsal S., Munawar I., Rafaqat, A,, Sirajuddin, Farooq, A., Raqeeb, U, & Salim, A. (2019). Fuel productions from Waste polystyrene via pyrolysis: Kinetics and products distribution, Was Manag., 88, 236-247.
  17. Nisar, J., Ghulam, A., Afsal, S., Naeem, A., Zahoor, H., Ahsan, S., Ejaz, A., Munawar, I., Syed, T., & Muhammad Raza Shah, (2020).Pyrolysis of polystyrene waste for recovery of combustible hydrocarbons using copper oxide as catalyst, Waste Manag. & Res, 1, pp. 1–9.
  18. Panda, A., & Singh, RK.(2013), Experimental Optimization of Process for the Thermo-catalytic Degradation of Waste Polypropylene to Liquid fuel, Adv. in Ener. Engg., 1 (3), 74-84.
  19. Patni, N., Shah, P., Agarwal, S., & Singhal, P. (2013). Alternative strategy for conversion of waste plastic to fuels. ISRN renew. Ener., 1, 1-7.
  20. Phetyim, N.,& Sommai Pivsa-Art, S. (2018). Prototype Co-pyrolysis of used lubricant oil and Mixed plastic waste to produce a diesel-like fuel. Energies., 11 (2973), 1-11.
  21. Pinto, F., Costa, P., Gulyurtlu, I., & Cabrita, I. (1999). Pyrolysis of plastic wastes 2. Effect of catalyst on product yield. J. of Anal. and Appl. Pyro., 51, 57–71.
  22. Olivia, R., Novesar, J, Syukri, A., & Yenny, A. (2017). The Utilization of Dolomite as catalyst in Biodiesel Production, Rasayan J. Chem., 10 (1), 160-164.
  23. Sarker, M., & Rashid. M., (2013). Mixture of LDPE, PP and PS Plastic solid waste into Fuel by Thermolysis Process. Inter. J. of Eng. and Tech. Res.,1, 1-16.
  24. Saxena, A,, Sharma, H., and Girish Rathi. (2017), Conversion of Waste Plastic to Fuel: Pyrolysis-An Efficient Method: A Review, International Conference on New and Renewable Energy Resources for Sustainable Future, Swami Keshvan and Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan, Jaipur (India)
  25. Sharuddin, S., Faisal, A., & Wan, D. (2016). A review on pyrolysis of plastic wastes, Ener. conver. Manag., 115, 308-326.
  26. Selvaganapathy, T., & Muthuvelayudham, R. (2019). Aromatic Liquid Hydro-Carbon Fuel (ALHF) production from the waste plastic using pyrolytic reactor under thermal degradation. Inter. J. of Man. IT & Engg.9, 98-141.
  27. Selvaganapathy, T., Muthuvelayudham, R., & Jayakumar, M. (2020). Process parameter optimization study on thermolytic polystyrene liquid fuel using response surface methodology (RSM). Mat. Today. Proceed., 26, 2729–2739.
  28. Selvaganapathy, T., Muthuvelayudham, R., & Jeyakumar, M. (2019). Steady-state Simulation of Plastic Pyrolysis Process using Aspen Hysys V9 Simulator. Int. J. Recent Tech. and Engg.,8, 2206-2211. /v8i4/D7885118419
  29. Sonawane, Y., Shindikar, M., & Khaladkar, M., (2015). Use of Catalyst in Pyrolysis of Polypropylene waste into Liquid Fuel. Int Res. J. of Env. Sci., 4(7), 24-28.

Last update:

  1. Upcycling Polystyrene

    Jaworski C. Capricho, Krishnamurthy Prasad, Nishar Hameed, Mostafa Nikzad, Nisa Salim. Polymers, 14 (22), 2022. doi: 10.3390/polym14225010
  2. Microwave-assisted in-situ catalytic pyrolysis of polystyrene: Analysis of product formation and energy consumption using machine learning approach

    Avinash Terapalli, Dinesh Kamireddi, Veluru Sridevi, M. Tukarambai, Dadi V. Suriapparao, Chinta Sankar Rao, Ribhu Gautam, Prerak R. Modi. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 166 , 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2022.08.016

Last update: 2024-06-23 04:37:36

No citation recorded.