skip to main content

A Review on the Recent Breakthrough Methods and Influential Parameters in the Biodiesel Synthesis and Purification

Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia

Received: 7 Dec 2021; Revised: 17 Jun 2022; Accepted: 29 Jun 2022; Available online: 19 Jul 2022; Published: 1 Nov 2022.
Editor(s): Rock Keey Liew
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Biodiesel has recently received much attention as an energy source with numerous benefits such as high degradability, negligible toxicity, and minimal emissions of carbon monoxide gases as well as particulates. Therefore, this research aims to compare, review, and summarize the conventional and advanced methods of biodiesel production. Currently, some emerging processes that were developed for advanced biodiesel production include microwave-assisted synthesis, ultrasonic-assisted synthesis, supercritical transesterification, and liquid phase plasma discharge technology. The types of feedstocks, catalysts, and operating conditions as the influential parameters in biodiesel synthesis are also discussed. Moreover, in the purification process, the effectiveness of purification depends on the type of catalyst applied in the synthesis process. This research also reviewed and compared several commonly used purification methods such as wet and dry washing, ion exchange and precipitation, complexation, and membrane-based separation that have shown significant results along with the impacts of biodiesel production on environmental and economic sectors
Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: biodiesel synthesis; biodiesel purification; heterogeneous catalyst; homogeneous catalyst; dry washing, wet washing
Funding: Directorate General of Higher Education Ministry of National Education Indonesia No. 257-68/UN7.6.1/PP/2021

Article Metrics:

  1. Abdul-Majeed, W.S., AAl-Thani, G.S., Al-Sabahi, J.N., 2016. Application of Flying Jet Plasma for Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Wasted Vegetable Oil. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing 36, 1517–1531.
  2. Abo, B.O., Odey, E.A., Bakayoko, M., Kalakodio, L., 2019. Microalgae to biofuels production: A review on cultivation, application and renewable energy. Reviews on Environmental Health 34, 91–99.
  3. Abomohra, A.E.F., El-Sheekh, M., Hanelt, D., 2017. Screening of marine microalgae isolated from the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon for biodiesel feedstock. Renewable Energy 101, 1266–1272.
  4. Adewale, P., Vithanage, L.N., Christopher, L., 2017. Optimization of enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production from crude tall oil using Taguchi method. Energy Conversion and Management 154, 81–91.
  5. Aghbashlo, M., Tabatabaei, M., Hosseinpour, S., 2018. On the exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental evaluation and optimization of biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil (WCO) using a low power, high frequency ultrasonic reactor. Energy Conversion and Management 164, 385–398.
  6. Ajala, E.O., Ajala, M.A., Ajao, A.O., Saka, H.B., Oladipo, A.C., 2020. Calcium-carbide residue: A precursor for the synthesis of CaO–Al2O3–SiO2–CaSO4 solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production using waste lard. Chemical Engineering Journal Advances 4, 100033.
  7. Alagumalai, A., Mahian, O., Hollmann, F., Zhang, W., 2021. Environmentally benign solid catalysts for sustainable biodiesel production: A critical review. Science of The Total Environment 768, 144856.
  8. Alami, A.H., Alasad, S., Ali, M., Alshamsi, M., 2021. Investigating algae for CO2 capture and accumulation and simultaneous production of biomass for biodiesel production. Science of The Total Environment 759, 143529.
  9. Alcañiz-Monge, J., Bakkali, B. el, Trautwein, G., Reinoso, S., 2018. Zirconia-supported tungstophosphoric heteropolyacid as heterogeneous acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 224, 194–203.
  10. Ali, S.D., Javed, I.N., Rana, U.A., Nazar, M.F., Ahmed, W., Junaid, A., Pasha, M., Nazir, Rumana, Nazir, Rizwana, 2017. Novel SrO-CaO Mixed Metal Oxides Catalyst for Ultrasonic-Assisted Transesterification of Jatropha Oil into Biodiesel. Australian Journal of Chemistry 70, 258.
  11. Almarashi, J.Q.M., El-Zohary, S.E., Ellabban, M.A., Abomohra, A.E.-F., 2020. Enhancement of lipid production and energy recovery from the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris by inoculum pretreatment with low-dose cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP). Energy Conversion and Management 204, 112314.
  12. Al-Saadi, A., Mathan, B., He, Y., 2020. Biodiesel production via simultaneous transesterification and esterification reactions over SrO–ZnO/Al2O3 as a bifunctional catalyst using high acidic waste cooking oil. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 162, 238–248.
  13. Andrade, T.A., Martín, M., Errico, M., Christensen, K. v., 2019. Biodiesel production catalyzed by liquid and immobilized enzymes: Optimization and economic analysis. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 141, 1–14.
  14. Anwar, M., 2021. Biodiesel feedstocks selection strategies based on economic, technical, and sustainable aspects. Fuel 283, 119204.
  15. Asakura, Y., Nishida, T., Matsuoka, T., Koda, S., 2008. Effects of ultrasonic frequency and liquid height on sonochemical efficiency of large-scale sonochemical reactors. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 15, 244–250.
  16. Ashok, A., Kennedy, L.J., Vijaya, J.J., Aruldoss, U., 2018. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by magnesium oxide nanocatalyst synthesized using coprecipitation method. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 20, 1219–1231.
  17. Athar, M., Zaidi, S., 2020. A review of the feedstocks, catalysts, and intensification techniques for sustainable biodiesel production. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 8, 104523.
  18. Awogbemi, O., Kallon, D.V. von, Aigbodion, V.S., 2021. Trends in the development and utilization of agricultural wastes as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. Journal of the Energy Institute 98, 244–258.
  19. Ayas, N., Yilmaz, O., 2015. Catalytic esterification and transesterification reaction of high acidic value waste oil by microwave heating. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 34, 575–581.
  20. Badday, A.S., Abdullah, A.Z., Lee, K.-T., 2013a. Optimization of biodiesel production process from Jatropha oil using supported heteropolyacid catalyst and assisted by ultrasonic energy. Renewable Energy 50, 427–432.
  21. Badday, A.S., Abdullah, A.Z., Lee, K.-T., 2013b. Ultrasound-assisted transesterification of crude Jatropha oil using cesium doped heteropolyacid catalyst: Interactions between process variables. Energy 60, 283–291.
  22. Badoei-dalfard, A., Malekabadi, S., Karami, Z., Sargazi, G., 2019. Magnetic cross-linked enzyme aggregates of Km12 lipase: A stable nanobiocatalyst for biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil. Renewable Energy 141, 874–882.
  23. Bansod, P., Kodape, S., Bhasarkar, J., Bhutada, D., 2021. Ceramic membranes (Al2O3/TiO2) used for separation glycerol from biodiesel using response surface methodology. Materials Today: Proceedings.
  24. Bashir, M.A., Thiri, M., Yang, X., Yang, Y., Safdar, A.M., 2018. Purification of biodiesel via pre-washing of transesterified waste oil to produce less contaminated wastewater. Journal of Cleaner Production 180, 466–471.
  25. Bashir, M.A., Wu, S., Krosuri, A., 2021. Rapid and efficient esterification of oleic acid by continuous liquid-phase plasma discharge. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 9, 104640.
  26. Baskar, G., Aberna Ebenezer Selvakumari, I., Aiswarya, R., 2018. Biodiesel production from castor oil using heterogeneous Ni doped ZnO nanocatalyst. Bioresource Technology 250, 793–798.
  27. Bernal, J.M., Lozano, P., García-Verdugo, E., Burguete, M.I., Sánchez-Gómez, G., López-López, G., Pucheault, M., Vaultier, M., Luis, S. v., 2012. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel. Molecules 17, 8696–8719.
  28. Binnal, P., Amruth, A., Basawaraj, M.P., Chethan, T.S., Murthy, K.R.S., Rajashekhara, S., 2021. Microwave-assisted esterification and transesterification of dairy scum oil for biodiesel production: kinetics and optimisation studies. Indian Chemical Engineer 63, 374–386.
  29. Binnal, P., Nirguna Babu, P., 2019. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis oculata in centrate and conversion of its lipids to biodiesel in a low-cost microwave reactor. Biofuels 10, 439–452.
  30. Boey, P.L., Maniam, G.P., Hamid, S.A., 2011. Performance of calcium oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production: A review. Chemical Engineering Journal 168, 15–22.
  31. Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P., 2017a. Synthesis of biodiesel on a hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor over K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst. Scientific Study and Research: Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Food Industry 18, 303 – 318
  32. Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P., 2017b. Effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity and Catalyst Diameter on Performance of Hybrid Catalytic-Plasma Reactor for Biodiesel Synthesis over Sulphated Zinc Oxide Acid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 12, 227.
  33. Catarino, M., Ferreira, E., Soares Dias, A.P., Gomes, J., 2020. Dry washing biodiesel purification using fumed silica sorbent. Chemical Engineering Journal 386, 123930.
  34. Chang, M.Y., Chan, E.S., Song, C.P., 2021. Biodiesel production catalysed by low-cost liquid enzyme Eversa® Transform 2.0: Effect of free fatty acid content on lipase methanol tolerance and kinetic model. Fuel 283, 119266.
  35. Chee Loong, T., Idris, A., 2014. Rapid alkali catalyzed transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel using simultaneous cooling and microwave heating and its optimization. Bioresource Technology 174, 311–315.
  36. Chen, C.-L., Huang, C.-C., Ho, K.-C., Hsiao, P.-X., Wu, M.-S., Chang, J.-S., 2015. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes. Bioresource Technology 194, 179–186.
  37. Chen, K.-S., Lin, Y.-C., Hsu, K.-H., Wang, H.-K., 2012. Improving biodiesel yields from waste cooking oil by using sodium methoxide and a microwave heating system. Energy 38, 151–156.
  38. Cheng, J., Huang, R., Li, T., Zhou, J., Cen, K., 2014. Biodiesel from wet microalgae: Extraction with hexane after the microwave-assisted transesterification of lipids. Bioresource Technology 170, 69–75.
  39. Chingakham, Ch., Tiwary, C., Sajith, V., 2019. Waste Animal Bone as a Novel Layered Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Transesterification of Biodiesel. Catalysis Letters 149, 1100–1110.
  40. da Silva, J.R.P., Nürnberg, A.J., da Costa, F.P., Zenevicz, M.C., Lerin, L.A., Zanetti, M., Valério, A., de Oliveira, J.V., Ninow, J.L., de Oliveira, D., 2018. Lipase NS40116 as catalyst for enzymatic transesterification of abdominal chicken fat as substrate. Bioresource Technology Reports 4, 214–217.
  41. Dai, Y.-M., Wang, Y.-F., Chen, C.-C., 2018. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic LiFe5O8-LiFeO2 as a solid basic catalyst for biodiesel production. Catalysis Communications 106, 20–24.
  42. Dall’Oglio, E.L., de Sousa, P.T., Campos, D.C., Gomes de Vasconcelos, L., da Silva, A.C., Ribeiro, F., Rodrigues, V., Kuhnen, C.A., 2015. Measurement of Dielectric Properties and Microwave-Assisted Homogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification in a Monomode Reactor. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 119, 8971–8980.
  43. De, A., Boxi, S.S., 2020. Application of Cu impregnated TiO2 as a heterogeneous nanocatalyst for the production of biodiesel from palm oil. Fuel 265, 117019.
  44. de Aguiar, V.M., de Souza, A.L.F., Galdino, F.S., da Silva, M.M.C., Teixeira, V.G., Lachter, E.R., 2017. Sulfonated poly(divinylbenzene) and poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) as catalysts for esterification of fatty acids. Renewable Energy 114, 725–732.
  45. de Mello, M., Young, A., Villardi, H., Pessoa, F., Salgado, A., 2017. Biodiesel production by the methylic-alkaline and ethylic-enzymatic routes: Discussion of some environmental aspects. Journal of Cleaner Production 144, 347–357.
  46. de Oliveira, A. de N., da Silva Costa, L.R., de Oliveira Pires, L.H., do Nascimento, L.A.S., Angélica, R.S., da Costa, C.E.F., Zamian, J.R., da Rocha Filho, G.N., 2013. Microwave-assisted preparation of a new esterification catalyst from wasted flint kaolin. Fuel 103, 626–631.
  47. de Oliveira, F.C., Coelho, S.T., 2017. History, evolution, and environmental impact of biodiesel in Brazil: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 75, 168–179.
  48. Deeba, F., Kumar, B., Arora, N., Singh, S., Kumar, A., Han, S.S., Negi, Y.S., 2020. Novel bio-based solid acid catalyst derived from waste yeast residue for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 159, 127–139.
  49. Dehghan, L., Golmakani, M.-T., Hosseini, S.M.H., 2019. Optimization of microwave-assisted accelerated transesterification of inedible olive oil for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 138, 915–922.
  50. Dehghani, S., Haghighi, M., 2020. Sono-enhanced dispersion of CaO over Zr-Doped MCM-41 bifunctional nanocatalyst with various Si/Zr ratios for conversion of waste cooking oil to biodiesel. Renewable Energy 153, 801–812.
  51. Demirbas, A., 2010. Use of algae as biofuel sources. Energy Conversion and Management 51, 2738–2749.
  52. Deshpande, S.R., Sunol, A.K., Philippidis, G., 2017. Status and prospects of supercritical alcohol transesterification for biodiesel production. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment 6, e252.
  53. Dias, J.M., Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M., Almeida, M.F., 2008. Comparison of the performance of different homogeneous alkali catalysts during transesterification of waste and virgin oils and evaluation of biodiesel quality. Fuel 87, 3572–3578.
  54. Díaz-Ballote, L., Maldonado, L., Genesca, J., Hoil-Canul, E.R., Vega-Lizama, T., 2020. Electrochemical impedance: A new alternative to assess the soap removal from biodiesel in the washing process. Fuel 265, 116880.
  55. Du, C.M., Yan, J.H., Cheron, B., 2007. Decomposition of toluene in a gliding arc discharge plasma reactor. Plasma Sources Science and Technology 16, 791–797.
  56. Duz, M.Z., Saydut, A., Ozturk, G., 2011. Alkali catalyzed transesterification of safflower seed oil assisted by microwave irradiation. Fuel Processing Technology 92, 308–313.
  57. Edwan Kardena, Q.H., 2015. Petroleum Oil and Gas Industry Waste Treatment; Common Practice in Indonesia. Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology 06.
  58. Eguchi, S., Kagawa, S., Okamoto, S., 2015. Environmental and economic performance of a biodiesel plant using waste cooking oil. Journal of Cleaner Production 101, 245–250.
  59. Elgarhi, I., El-Kassaby, M.M., Eldrainy, Y.A., 2020. Enhancing compression ignition engine performance using biodiesel/diesel blends and HHO gas. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 45, 25409–25425.
  60. Fallah Kelarijani, A., Gholipour Zanjani, N., Kamran Pirzaman, A., 2020. Ultrasonic Assisted Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil to Biodiesel Using Nano Magnetic Catalysts. Waste and Biomass Valorization 11, 2613–2621.
  61. Fan, Y., Zhao, W., Shao, S., Cai, Y., Chen, Y., Jin, L., 2018. Promotion of the vapors from biomass vacuum pyrolysis for biofuels under Non-thermal Plasma Synergistic Catalysis (NPSC) system. Energy 142, 462–472.
  62. Farobie, O., Matsumura, Y., 2017. State of the art of biodiesel production under supercritical conditions. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 63, 173–203.
  63. Fayyazi, E., Ghobadian, B., Najafi, G., Hosseinzadeh, B., 2014. Genetic Algorithm Approach to Optimize Biodiesel Production by Ultrasonic System. Chemical Product and Process Modeling 9, 59–70.
  64. Fayyazi, E., Ghobadian, B., Safieddin Ardebili, S.M., Najafi, G., Mousavi, S.M., Hosseinzadeh Samani, B., Yue, J., 2021. Biodiesel fuel purification in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator: An environmental-friendly approach. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 47, 101511.
  65. Fayyazi, E., Ghobadian, B., van de Bovenkamp, H.H., Najafi, G., Hosseinzadehsamani, B., Heeres, H.J., Yue, J., 2018. Optimization of Biodiesel Production over Chicken Eggshell-Derived CaO Catalyst in a Continuous Centrifugal Contactor Separator. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 57, 12742–12755.
  66. Florez Marulanda, J.F., Ortega Alegria, D.R., 2019. Design and manufacturing of an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel obtaining by transesterification. DYNA 86, 75–83.
  67. Foroutan, R., Mohammadi, R., Esmaeili, H., Mirzaee Bektashi, F., Tamjidi, S., 2020. Transesterification of waste edible oils to biodiesel using calcium oxide@magnesium oxide nanocatalyst. Waste Management 105, 373–383.
  68. Ganesan, R., Manigandan, S., Shanmugam, S., Chandramohan, V.P., Sindhu, R., Kim, S.H., Brindhadevi, K., Pugazhendhi, A., 2021. A detailed scrutinize on panorama of catalysts in biodiesel synthesis. Science of The Total Environment 777, 145683.
  69. Ganesan, S., Mohanraj, M., Srikar, K., Prudhvi, K., 2021. Impact of heterogenous acid catalyst on diesel engine performance and emissions using Chlorella-SP biodiesel. Materials Today: Proceedings.
  70. Gharibi, M., Khosravi, A., Khani, M.R., Shahabi, S.S., Guy, E.D., Shokri, B., 2015. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma torch treatment of pyrolysis fuel oil in presence of methane and ethane. Journal of Electrostatics 76, 178–187.
  71. Gogate, P.R., 2008. Cavitational reactors for process intensification of chemical processing applications: A critical review. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification 47, 515–527.
  72. Gojun, M., Šalić, A., Zelić, B., 2021. Integrated microsystems for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and glycerol removal by extraction or ultrafiltration. Renewable Energy 180, 213–221.
  73. Gomes, M.G., Santos, D.Q., de Morais, L.C., Pasquini, D., 2015. Purification of biodiesel by dry washing, employing starch and cellulose as natural adsorbents. Fuel 155, 1–6.
  74. Goswami, K.P., Pugazhenthi, G., 2021. Effect of binder concentration on properties of low-cost fly ash-based tubular ceramic membrane and its application in separation of glycerol from biodiesel. Journal of Cleaner Production 319, 128679.
  75. Guldhe, A., Moura, C.V.R., Singh, P., Rawat, I., Moura, E.M., Sharma, Y., Bux, F., 2017. Conversion of microalgal lipids to biodiesel using chromium-aluminum mixed oxide as a heterogeneous solid acid catalyst. Renewable Energy 105, 175–182.
  76. Gupta, A.R., Yadav, S. v., Rathod, V.K., 2015. Enhancement in biodiesel production using waste cooking oil and calcium diglyceroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst in presence of ultrasound. Fuel 158, 800–806.
  77. Hadiyanto, H., Aini, A.P., Widayat, W., Kusmiyati, K., Budiman, A., Rosyadi, A. (2020). Multi-feedstock biodiesel production from esterification of Calophyllum inophyllum oil, castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 9 (1),119-123.
  78. Hadiyanto, H., Lestari, S.P., Widayat, W. (2016). Preparation and characterization of Anadara Granosa shells and CaCo3 as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production.Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1), 21-26.
  79. Hajra, B., Sultana, N., Pathak, A.K., Guria, C., 2015. Response surface method and genetic algorithm assisted optimal synthesis of biodiesel from high free fatty acid sal oil (Shorea robusta) using ion-exchange resin at high temperature. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 3, 2378–2392.
  80. Hamza, M., Ayoub, M., Shamsuddin, R. bin, Mukhtar, A., Saqib, S., Zahid, I., Ameen, M., Ullah, S., Al-Sehemi, A.G., Ibrahim, M., 2021. A review on the waste biomass derived catalysts for biodiesel production. Environmental Technology & Innovation 21, 101200.
  81. Han, H., Cao, W., Zhang, J., 2005. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil using supercritical methanol and CO2 as co-solvent. Process Biochemistry 40, 3148–3151.
  82. Hariprasath, P., Selvamani, S.T., Vigneshwar, M., Palanikumar, K., Jayaperumal, D., 2019. Comparative analysis of cashew and canola oil biodiesel with homogeneous catalyst by transesterification method. Materials Today: Proceedings 16, 1357–1362.
  83. Helmi, M., Ghadiri, M., Tahvildari, K., Hemmati, A., 2021. Biodiesel synthesis using clinoptilolite-Fe3O4-based phosphomolybdic acid as a novel magnetic green catalyst from salvia mirzayanii oil via electrolysis method: Optimization study by Taguchi method. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 9, 105988.
  84. Huang, R., Cheng, J., Qiu, Y., Li, T., Zhou, J., Cen, K., 2015. Using renewable ethanol and isopropanol for lipid transesterification in wet microalgae cells to produce biodiesel with low crystallization temperature. Energy Conversion and Management 105, 791–797.
  85. Iglesias, J., Melero, J.A., Bautista, L.F., Morales, G., Sánchez-Vázquez, R., 2014. Continuous production of biodiesel from low grade feedstock in presence of Zr-SBA-15: Catalyst performance and resistance against deactivation. Catalysis Today 234, 174–181.
  86. Ilmi, M., Kloekhorst, A., Winkelman, J.G.M., Euverink, G.J.W., Hidayat, C., Heeres, H.J., 2017. Process intensification of catalytic liquid-liquid solid processes: Continuous biodiesel production using an immobilized lipase in a centrifugal contactor separator. Chemical Engineering Journal 321, 76–85.
  87. Istadi, I., D. Yudhistira, A., D. Anggoro, D., Buchori, L., 2014. Electro-Catalysis System for Biodiesel Synthesis from Palm Oil over Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 9.
  88. Jaber, R., Shirazi, M.M.A., Toufaily, J., Hamieh, A.T., Noureddin, A., Ghanavati, H., Ghaffari, A., Zenouzi, A., Karout, A., Ismail, A.F., Tabatabaei, M., 2015. Biodiesel wash-water reuse using microfiltration: toward zero-discharge strategy for cleaner and economized biodiesel production. Biofuel Research Journal 148–151.
  89. Jayakumar, M., Karmegam, N., Gundupalli, M.P., Bizuneh Gebeyehu, K., Tessema Asfaw, B., Chang, S.W., Ravindran, B., Kumar Awasthi, M., 2021. Heterogeneous base catalysts: Synthesis and application for biodiesel production – A review. Bioresource Technology 331, 125054.
  90. Jayed, M.H., Masjuki, H.H., Saidur, R., Kalam, M.A., Jahirul, M.I., 2009. Environmental aspects and challenges of oilseed produced biodiesel in Southeast Asia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13, 2452–2462.
  91. JITPUTTI, J., KITIYANAN, B., RANGSUNVIGIT, P., BUNYAKIAT, K., ATTANATHO, L., JENVANITPANJAKUL, P., 2006. Transesterification of crude palm kernel oil and crude coconut oil by different solid catalysts. Chemical Engineering Journal 116, 61–66.
  92. Jogi, R., Murthy, Y.V.V.S., Satyanarayana, M.R.S., Rao, T.N., Javed, S., 2016. Biodiesel production from degummed Jatropha curcas oil using constant-temperature ultrasonic water bath. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 38, 2610–2616.
  93. Kamel Ariffin, M.F., Idris, A., 2022. Fe2O3/Chitosan coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles supporting lipase enzyme from Candida Antarctica for microwave assisted biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 185, 1362–1375.
  94. Kasirajan, R., 2021. Biodiesel production by two step process from an energy source of Chrysophyllum albidum oil using homogeneous catalyst. South African Journal of Chemical Engineering 37, 161–166.
  95. Keera, S.T., el Sabagh, S.M., Taman, A.R., 2018. Castor oil biodiesel production and optimization. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 27, 979–984.
  96. Khani, M.R., Khosravi, A., Gharibi, M., Shahabi, S.S., Guy, E.D., Shokri, B., 2015. Conversion of Pyrolysis Fuel Oils by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor in the Presence of Methane and Ethane. Chemical Engineering & Technology 38, 1452–1459.
  97. Khosravi, E., Shariati, A., Nikou, M.R.K., 2016. Instant biodiesel production from waste cooking oil under industrial ultrasonic irradiation. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology 11, 308.
  98. Kim, M., DiMaggio, C., Yan, S., Wang, H., Salley, Steven.O., Simon Ng, K.Y., 2011. Performance of heterogeneous ZrO2 supported metaloxide catalysts for brown grease esterification and sulfur removal. Bioresource Technology 102, 2380–2386.
  99. Kongprawes, G., Wongsawaeng, D., Ngaosuwan, K., Kiatkittipong, W., Assabumrungrat, S., 2021. Low-temperature and atmospheric pressure plasma for palm biodiesel hydrogenation. Scientific Reports 11, 14224.
  100. Krishnan, S.G., Pua, F. ling, Zhang, F., 2021. A review of magnetic solid catalyst development for sustainable biodiesel production. Biomass and Bioenergy 149, 106099.
  101. Kumar, D., Kumar, G., Poonam, Singh, C.P., 2010. Ultrasonic-assisted transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil using solid catalyst, Na/SiO2. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 17, 839–844.
  102. Kumar, L.R., Yellapu, S.K., Tyagi, R.D., Drogui, P., 2020. Cost, energy and GHG emission assessment for microbial biodiesel production through valorization of municipal sludge and crude glycerol. Bioresource Technology 297, 122404.
  103. Kusdiana, D., Saka, S., 2004. Effects of water on biodiesel fuel production by supercritical methanol treatment. Bioresource Technology 91, 289–295.
  104. Lawan, I., Garba, Z.N., Zhou, W., Zhang, M., Yuan, Z., 2020. Synergies between the microwave reactor and CaO/zeolite catalyst in waste lard biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 145, 2550–2560.
  105. Lee, J.-S., Saka, S., 2010. Biodiesel production by heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical technologies. Bioresource Technology 101, 7191–7200.
  106. Li, J., Fu, Y.J., Qu, X.J., Wang, W., Luo, M., Zhao, C.J., Zu, Y.G., 2012. Biodiesel production from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed oil using ion exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresource Technology 108, 112–118.
  107. Lin, J.-J., Chen, Y.-W., 2017. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil with microwave heating. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 75, 43–50.
  108. Liu, J., Liu, M., Chen, S., Wang, B., Chen, J., Yang, D.P., Zhang, S., Du, W., 2020. Conversion of Au(III)-polluted waste eggshell into functional CaO/Au nanocatalyst for biodiesel production. Green Energy & Environment.
  109. Luo, J., Fang, Z., Smith, R.L., 2014. Ultrasound-enhanced conversion of biomass to biofuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 41, 56–93.
  110. Malhotra, R., Ali, A., 2018. Lithium-doped ceria supported SBA−15 as mesoporous solid reusable and heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production via simultaneous esterification and transesterification of waste cottonseed oil. Renewable Energy 119, 32–44.
  111. Mamo, T.T., Mekonnen, Y.S., 2020. Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production from Microalgae, Scenedesmus Species, Using Goat Bone–Made Nano-catalyst. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 190, 1147–1162.
  112. Marchetti, J.M., Miguel, V.U., Errazu, A.F., 2007. Possible methods for biodiesel production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11, 1300–1311.
  113. Marín-Suárez, M., Méndez-Mateos, D., Guadix, A., Guadix, E.M., 2019. Reuse of immobilized lipases in the transesterification of waste fish oil for the production of biodiesel. Renewable Energy 140, 1–8.
  114. Martinez-Guerra, E., Gude, V.G., 2015. Continuous and pulse sonication effects on transesterification of used vegetable oil. Energy Conversion and Management 96, 268–276.
  115. Mazzocchia, C., Modica, G., Kaddouri, A., Nannicini, R., 2004. Fatty acid methyl esters synthesis from triglycerides over heterogeneous catalysts in the presence of microwaves. Comptes Rendus Chimie 7, 601–605.
  116. Meeprasertsagool, P., Watthanaphanit, A., Ueno, T., Saito, N., Reubroycharoen, P., 2017. New insights into vegetable oil pyrolysis by cold plasma technique. Energy Procedia 138, 1153–1158.
  117. Mendow, G., Veizaga, N.S., Sánchez, B.S., Querini, C.A., 2012. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide. Bioresource Technology 118, 598–602.
  118. Mibielli, G.M., Fagundes, A.P., Bohn, L.R., Cavali, M., Bueno, A., Bender, J.P., Oliveira, J.V., 2020. Enzymatic production of methyl esters from low-cost feedstocks. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 24, 101558.
  119. Mostaghimi, J., Boulos, M.I., 2015. Thermal Plasma Sources: How Well are They Adopted to Process Needs? Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing 35, 421–436.
  120. Muanruksa, P., Kaewkannetra, P., 2020. Combination of fatty acids extraction and enzymatic esterification for biodiesel production using sludge palm oil as a low-cost substrate. Renewable Energy 146, 901–906.
  121. Murillo, G., He, Y., Yan, Y., Sun, J., Bartocci, P., Ali, S.S., Fantozzi, F., 2019. Scaled-up biodiesel synthesis from Chinese Tallow Kernel oil catalyzed by Burkholderia cepacia lipase through ultrasonic assisted technology: A non-edible and alternative source of bio energy. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 58, 104658.
  122. Musiał, I., Cibis, E., Rymowicz, W., 2011. Designing a process of kaolin bleaching in an oxalic acid enriched medium by Aspergillus niger cultivated on biodiesel-derived waste composed of glycerol and fatty acids. Applied Clay Science 52, 277–284.
  123. Nabilla, S., Anisa, S.F., Zara, K., Bismo, S., 2019. Biodiesel synthesis in DBD plasma reactor using triglyceride-methanol mixture contacted with CO 2 -steam gas mixture. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1349, 012066.
  124. Naveenkumar, R., Baskar, G., 2020. Optimization and techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Calophyllum inophyllum oil using heterogeneous nanocatalyst. Bioresource Technology 315, 123852.
  125. Nayak, M.G., Vyas, A.P., 2019. Optimization of microwave-assisted biodiesel production from Papaya oil using response surface methodology. Renewable Energy 138, 18–28.
  126. Nayak, S.N., Bhasin, C.P., Nayak, M.G., 2019. A review on microwave-assisted transesterification processes using various catalytic and non-catalytic systems. Renewable Energy 143, 1366–1387.
  127. Nikseresht, A., Daniyali, A., Ali-Mohammadi, M., Afzalinia, A., Mirzaie, A., 2017. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production by a novel composite of Fe(III)-based MOF and phosphotangestic acid as efficient and reusable catalyst. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 37, 203–207.
  128. Noriega, M.A., Narváez, P.C., 2020. Scale-up and cost analysis of biodiesel production using liquid-liquid film reactors: Reduction in the methanol consumption and investment cost. Energy 211, 118724.
  129. Oliveira, P.A., Baesso, R.M., Morais, G.C., Alvarenga, A. v., Costa-Félix, R.P.B., 2021. Ultrasound-assisted transesterification of soybean oil using low power and high frequency and no external heating source. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 78, 105709.
  130. Oliveira Palm, M., Luchetti Alves de Freitas Barbosa, S., Wilgen Gonçalves, M., Duarte, D.A., de Camargo Catapan, R., Silva de Carvalho Pinto, C.R., 2022. Plasma-assisted catalytic route for transesterification reactions at room temperature. Fuel 307, 121740.
  131. Parida, S., Sahu, D.K., Misra, P.K., 2016. A rapid ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel from a mixture of Karanj and soybean oil. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 38, 1110–1116.
  132. Patiño, Y., Faba, L., Díaz, E., Ordóñez, S., 2021. Biodiesel production from wastewater sludge using exchange resins as heterogeneous acid catalyst: Catalyst selection and sludge pre-treatments. Journal of Water Process Engineering 44, 102335.
  133. Pedro, K.C.N.R., Ferreira, I.E.P., Henriques, C.A., Langone, M.A.P., 2020. Enzymatic fatty acid ethyl esters synthesis using acid soybean oil and liquid lipase formulation. Chemical Engineering Communications 207, 43–55.
  134. Pinzi, S., Leiva, D., López-García, I., Redel-Macías, M.D., Dorado, M.P., 2014. Latest trends in feedstocks for biodiesel production. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 8, 126–143.
  135. Pleşu, V., Subirana Puigcasas, J., Benet Surroca, G., Bonet, J., Bonet Ruiz, A.E., Tuluc, A., Llorens, J., 2015. Process intensification in biodiesel production with energy reduction by pinch analysis. Energy 79, 273–287.
  136. Qu, S., Chen, C., Guo, M., Jiang, W., Lu, J., Yi, W., Ding, J., 2021. Microwave-assisted in-situ transesterification of Spirulina platensis to biodiesel using PEG/MgO/ZSM-5 magnetic catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production 311, 127490.
  137. Rabie, A.M., Shaban, M., Abukhadra, M.R., Hosny, R., Ahmed, S.A., Negm, N.A., 2019. Diatomite supported by CaO/MgO nanocomposite as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Journal of Molecular Liquids 279, 224–231.
  138. Rahmani Vahid, B., Haghighi, M., Alaei, S., Toghiani, J., 2017. Reusability enhancement of combustion synthesized MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst in biodiesel production by glow discharge plasma treatment. Energy Conversion and Management 143, 23–32.
  139. Rezania, S., Mahdinia, S., Oryani, B., Cho, J., Kwon, E.E., Bozorgian, A., Rashidi Nodeh, H., Darajeh, N., Mehranzamir, K., 2022. Biodiesel production from wild mustard (Sinapis Arvensis) seed oil using a novel heterogeneous catalyst of LaTiO3 nanoparticles. Fuel 307, 121759.
  140. Rokni, K., Mostafaei, M., Dehghani Soufi, M., Kahrizi, D., 2022. Microwave-assisted intensification of transesterification reaction for biodiesel production from camelina oil: Optimization by Box-Behnken Design. Bioresource Technology Reports 17, 100928.
  141. Sajjadi, B., Abdul Aziz, A.R., Ibrahim, S., 2015. Mechanistic analysis of cavitation assisted transesterification on biodiesel characteristics. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 22, 463–473.
  142. Salamatinia, B., Abdullah, A.Z., Bhatia, S., 2012. Quality evaluation of biodiesel produced through ultrasound-assisted heterogeneous catalytic system. Fuel Processing Technology 97, 1–8.
  143. Šalić, A., Jurinjak Tušek, A., Gojun, M., Zelić, B., 2020. Biodiesel purification in microextractors: Choline chloride based deep eutectic solvents vs water. Separation and Purification Technology 242, 116783.
  144. Saputra Nursal, R., Khalid, A., Shahridzuan Abdullah, I., Jaat, N., Darlis, N., Koten, H., 2021. Autoignition behavior and emission of biodiesel from palm oil, waste cooking oil, tyre pyrolysis oil, algae and jatropha. Fuel 306, 121695.
  145. Sarno, M., Iuliano, M., 2019. Highly active and stable Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles supporting lipase catalyst for biodiesel production from waste tomato. Applied Surface Science 474, 135–146.
  146. Sarve, A.N., Varma, M.N., Sonawane, S.S., 2016. Ultrasound assisted two-stage biodiesel synthesis from non-edible Schleichera triguga oil using heterogeneous catalyst: Kinetics and thermodynamic analysis. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 29, 288–298.
  147. Sawangkeaw, R., Teeravitud, S., Bunyakiat, K., Ngamprasertsith, S., 2011. Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical alcohols: Effects of the alcohol to oil molar ratios on the biofuel chemical composition and properties. Bioresource Technology 102, 10704–10710.
  148. Shankar, A.A., Pentapati, P.R., Prasad, R.K., 2017. Biodiesel synthesis from cottonseed oil using homogeneous alkali catalyst and using heterogeneous multi walled carbon nanotubes: Characterization and blending studies. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum 26, 125–133.
  149. Sharma, A.K., Sahoo, P.K., Singhal, S., Joshi, G., 2016. Exploration of upstream and downstream process for microwave assisted sustainable biodiesel production from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource Technology 216, 793–800.
  150. Shirazi, M.M.A., Kargari, A., Bazgir, S., Tabatabaei, M., Shirazi, M.J.A., Abdullah, M.S., Matsuura, T., Ismail, A.F., 2013. Characterization of electrospun polystyrene membrane for treatment of biodiesel’s water-washing effluent using atomic force microscopy. Desalination 329, 1–8.
  151. Siddiquee, M.N., Kazemian, H., Rohani, S., 2011. Biodiesel production from the lipid of wastewater sludge using an acidic heterogeneous catalyst. Chemical Engineering and Technology 34, 1983–1988.
  152. Silviana, S., Anggoro, D.D., Salsabila, C.A., Aprilio, K., 2021a. Utilization of geothermal waste as a silica adsorbent for biodiesel purification. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering.
  153. Silviana, S., Dalanta, F., Sanyoto, G.J., 2021b. Utilization of bamboo leaf silica as a superhydrophobic coating using trimethylchlorosilane as a surface modification agent, in: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. IOP Publishing Ltd.
  154. Silviana, Silviana, Darmawan, A., Dalanta, F., Subagio, A., Hermawan, F., Santoso, H.M., 2021. Superhydrophobic coating derived from geothermal silica to enhance material durability of bamboo using hexadimethylsilazane (HMDS) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). Materials 14, 1–20.
  155. Sokač, T., Gojun, M., Tušek, A.J., Šalić, A., Zelić, B., 2020. Purification of biodiesel produced by lipase catalysed transesterification by ultrafiltration: Selection of membranes and analysis of membrane blocking mechanisms. Renewable Energy 159, 642–651.
  156. Song, Y., Wang, X., Cui, H., Ji, C., Xue, J., Jia, X., Ma, R., Li, R., 2021. Enhancing growth and oil accumulation of a palmitoleic acid–rich Scenedesmus obliquus in mixotrophic cultivation with acetate and its potential for ammonium-containing wastewater purification and biodiesel production. Journal of Environmental Management 297, 113273.
  157. Soni, S.S., Kotadia, D.A., Patel, V.K., Bhatt, H., 2014. A synergistic effect of microwave/ultrasound and symmetrical acidic ionic liquids on transesterification of vegetable oils with high free fatty acid. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 4, 301–309.
  158. Stavarache, C., Vinatoru, M., Maeda, Y., 2007. Aspects of ultrasonically assisted transesterification of various vegetable oils with methanol. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 14, 380–386.
  159. Subhedar, P.B., Gogate, P.R., 2016. Ultrasound assisted intensification of biodiesel production using enzymatic interesterification. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 29, 67–75.
  160. Syafiuddin, A., Chong, J.H., Yuniarto, A., Hadibarata, T., 2020. The current scenario and challenges of biodiesel production in Asian countries: A review. Bioresource Technology Reports 12, 100608.
  161. Takai, O., 2008. Solution plasma processing (SPP). Pure and Applied Chemistry 80, 2003–2011.
  162. Tangy, A., Pulidindi, I.N., Perkas, N., Gedanken, A., 2017. Continuous flow through a microwave oven for the large-scale production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Bioresource Technology 224, 333–341.
  163. Tavares, G.R., Gonçalves, J.E., dos Santos, W.D., da Silva, C., 2017. Enzymatic interesterification of crambe oil assisted by ultrasound. Industrial Crops and Products 97, 218–223.
  164. Thirugnanasambandham, K., Shine, K., Aziz, H.A., Gimenes, M.L., 2017. Biodiesel synthesis from waste oil using novel microwave technique: Response surface modeling and optimization. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 39, 636–642.
  165. Tsai, Y.-T., Lin, H., Lee, M.-J., 2013. Biodiesel production with continuous supercritical process: Non-catalytic transesterification and esterification with or without carbon dioxide. Bioresource Technology 145, 362–369.
  166. Veljković, V.B., Banković-Ilić, I.B., Stamenković, O.S., 2015. Purification of crude biodiesel obtained by heterogeneously-catalyzed transesterification. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 49, 500–516.
  167. Vicente, G., Martínez, M., Aracil, J., 2004. Integrated biodiesel production: a comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems. Bioresource Technology 92, 297–305.
  168. Vieira, S.S., Magriotis, Z.M., Graça, I., Fernandes, A., Ribeiro, M.F., Lopes, J.M.F.M., Coelho, S.M., Santos, N.A. v., Saczk, A.A., 2017. Production of biodiesel using HZSM-5 zeolites modified with citric acid and SO42−/La2O3. Catalysis Today 279, 267–273.
  169. Wang, S., Ren, H., Lian, W., Wang, J., Zhao, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, T., Kong, L.B., 2021. Purification and dissociation of raw palygorskite through wet ball milling as a carrier to enhance the microwave absorption performance of Fe3O4. Applied Clay Science 200, 105915.
  170. Wang, S., Shan, R., Wang, Y., Lu, L., Yuan, H., 2019. Synthesis of calcium materials in biochar matrix as a highly stable catalyst for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 130, 41–49.
  171. Wongwuttanasatian, T., Jookjantra, K., 2020. Effect of dual-frequency pulsed ultrasonic excitation and catalyst size for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 152, 1220–1226.
  172. Wu, S., Bashir, M.A., Hsieh, H., Krosuri, A., McDonald, A., 2019a. Highly Efficient Biodiesel Conversion from Soybean Oil Using Liquid-Phase Plasma Discharge Technology. Trans ASABE 62, 1129–1134.
  173. Wu, S., Bashir, M.A., Zhu, J., 2020. Optimization of a liquid-phase plasma discharge process for biodiesel synthesis from pure oleic acid. Fuel Processing Technology 202, 106368.
  174. Wu, S., Deng, S., Zhu, J., Bashir, M.A., Izuno, F., 2019b. Optimization of a novel liquid-phase plasma discharge process for continuous production of biodiesel. Journal of Cleaner Production 228, 405–417.
  175. Xie, W., Huang, M., 2020. Fabrication of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase on magnetic Fe3O4-poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) composite as an efficient and recyclable biocatalyst for enzymatic production of biodiesel. Renewable Energy 158, 474–486.
  176. Xie, W., Wang, H., 2020. Synthesis of heterogenized polyoxometalate-based ionic liquids with Brönsted-Lewis acid sites: A magnetically recyclable catalyst for biodiesel production from low-quality oils. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 87, 162–172.
  177. Yadav, A.K., Khan, M.E., Pal, A., Singh, B., 2018. Ultrasonic-assisted optimization of biodiesel production from Karabi oil using heterogeneous catalyst. Biofuels 9, 101–112.
  178. Yasvanthrajan, N., Sivakumar, P., Muthukumar, K., Murugesan, T., Arunagiri, A., 2021. Production of biodiesel from waste bio-oil through ultrasound assisted transesterification using immobilized lipase. Environmental Technology & Innovation 21, 101199.
  179. Yin, J.-Z., Xiao, M., Song, J.-B., 2008. Biodiesel from soybean oil in supercritical methanol with co-solvent. Energy Conversion and Management 49, 908–912.
  180. Yuan, H., Shu, Q., 2013. Synthesis of Biodiesel from Castor Oil Catalyzed by Cesium Phosphotungstate with the Assistance of Microwave. Applied Mechanics and Materials 291–294, 300–306.
  181. Yusuff, A.S., Bhonsle, A.K., Trivedi, J., Bangwal, D.P., Singh, L.P., Atray, N., 2021. Synthesis and characterization of coal fly ash supported zinc oxide catalyst for biodiesel production using used cooking oil as feed. Renewable Energy 170, 302–314.
  182. Zailan, Z., Tahir, M., Jusoh, M., Zakaria, Z.Y., 2021. A review of sulfonic group bearing porous carbon catalyst for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy 175, 430–452.
  183. Zara, K., Nabilla, S., Annisa, S.F., Bismo, S., 2020. Characteristics of biodiesel production from cold plasma DBD reactors using a warm mixed castor oil and used oil, in: AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Conference Proceedings, p. 030001.
  184. Zhang, H., Ding, J., Zhao, Z., 2012. Microwave assisted esterification of acidified oil from waste cooking oil by CERP/PES catalytic membrane for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology 123, 72–77.
  185. Zhang, M., Ramya, G., Brindhadevi, K., Alsehli, M., Elfasakhany, A., Xia, C., Lan Chi, N.T., Pugazhendhi, A., 2022. Microwave assisted biodiesel production from chicken feather meal oil using Bio-Nano Calcium oxide derived from chicken egg shell. Environmental Research 205, 112509.
  186. Zhang, S., Zu, Y.-G., Fu, Y.-J., Luo, M., Zhang, D.-Y., Efferth, T., 2010. Rapid microwave-assisted transesterification of yellow horn oil to biodiesel using a heteropolyacid solid catalyst. Bioresource Technology 101, 931–936.
  187. Zhang, Y., 2003. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment. Bioresource Technology 89, 1–16.
  188. Zhang, Y., Niu, S., Lu, C., Gong, Z., Hu, X., 2020. Catalytic performance of NaAlO2/γ-Al2O3 as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimization using response surface methodology. Energy Conversion and Management 203, 112263.
  189. Zhu, H., Wu, Z., Chen, Y., Zhang, P., Duan, S., Liu, X., Mao, Z., 2006. Preparation of Biodiesel Catalyzed by Solid Super Base of Calcium Oxide and Its Refining Process. Chinese Journal of Catalysis 27, 391–396.

Last update:

  1. Impregnation process and kinetics studies of MgO nanocatalyst/montmorilonite-K10 for biodiesel production from Cerbera odollam oil in modified-microwave reactor

    I Wayan Sutapa, Paulina Taba, Koichiro Shiomori, Muhammad Ikshan Taipabu, Azlan Kamari. Kuwait Journal of Science, 51 (2), 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.kjs.2024.100209
  2. Optimization of biodiesel production from Nahar oil using Box-Behnken design, ANOVA and grey wolf optimizer

    Van Nhanh Nguyen, Prabhakar Sharma, Anurag Kumar, Minh Tuan Pham, Huu Cuong Le, Thanh Hai Truong, Dao Nam Cao. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 12 (4), 2023. doi: 10.14710/ijred.2023.54941
  3. A comprehensive review on the use of biodiesel for diesel engines

    Van Giao Nguyen, Minh Tuan Pham, Nguyen Viet Linh Le, Huu Cuong Le, Thanh Hai Truong, Dao Nam Cao. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 12 (4), 2023. doi: 10.14710/ijred.2023.54612
  4. A Review on Metal–Organic Framework as a Promising Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Van Giao Nguyen, Prabhakar Sharma, Marek Dzida, Van Hung Bui, Huu Son Le, Ahmed Shabana El-Shafay, Huu Cuong Le, Duc Trong Nguyen Le, Viet Dung Tran. Energy & Fuels, 38 (4), 2024. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.3c04203
  5. Biodiesel unsaturation and the synergic effects of hydrogen sharing rate on the characteristics of a compression ignition engine in dual-fuel mode

    C. Prabhu, B. Navaneetha Krishnan, T. Prakash, V. Rajasekar, Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Van Vang Le, Nguyen Viet Linh Le, Phuoc Quy Phong Nguyen, Van Nhanh Nguyen. Fuel, 334 , 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2022.126699
  6. Advances in modified silica nanoparticles utilization for various applications: Now and future

    S. Silviana, Febio Dalanta, D. Dwi Anggoro, A.C. Kumoro, D. Dahnum, W.K. Restu, K.C. Sembiring, Indriyati, S.T.C.L. Ndruru, A.M.H. Putri. E3S Web of Conferences, 503 , 2024. doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/202450309004

Last update: 2024-04-17 08:22:05

No citation recorded.