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Enhancing Hydrogen Generation using CdS-modified TiO2 Nanotube Arrays in 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol as a Hole Scavenger

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Indonesia, Jl. Raya Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten 15320, Indonesia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok, 16424, Indonesia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Indonesia, Jl. Raya Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang, Banten 15320,, Indonesia

Received: 10 Mar 2022; Revised: 22 Jun 2022; Accepted: 30 Jun 2022; Available online: 10 Jul 2022; Published: 1 Nov 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract

Nowadays, the lack of renewable energy such as hydrogen, and other environmental issues are problems that must be resolved. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is classified as a recalcitrant pollutant due to its carcinogenic properties, high toxicity, and dangers to the environment therefore it needs to be eliminated. Hydrogen production using organic pollutant (2,4,6-TCP solution) as a hole scavenger on CdS-TiO2 nanotube arrays photocatalyst (TNTA-CdS) has been investigated at various CdS loading on TNTA and the initial concentration of 2,4,6-TCP. The TNTA sample was prepared by anodization and followed by an electrodeposition method to decorate CdS on TNTA. The H2 which was generated by reduction H+ and the 2,4,6-TCP removal was performed simultaneously by photocatalysis with TNTA-CdS as photocatalyst. The mole ratio of CdCl2:CH3CSNH2 as precursors of CdS deposited on TNTA (CdS loading) were 0.1:0.06, 0.2:0.12, and 0.4:0.24 and the initial concentration of 2,4,6-TCP were 10, 20 and 40 ppm. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic performance of the variations in CdS loading on TNTA and initial concentration of 2,4,6-TCP toward hydrogen generation was investigated in a photoreactor for 240 minutes under visible light irradiation with a mercury lamp as a photon source. The CdS decorating on TNTA was confirmed by SEM, EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization. According to the UV-Vis and XRD analysis, the TNTA-CdS samples have bandgap energies in the range of 2.71 - 2.89 eV and comprise a 100% anatase phase. Based on the photocatalysis results, the optimum composition of CdS loading is 0.2:0.16 (TNTA-CdS-2) which produced the highest total hydrogen (2.155 mmol/g) compared to the other compositions and produced 1.5 times higher compared to TNTA at 40 ppm of 2,4,6-TCP.

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Keywords: 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol; Hole Scavenger; Hydrogen Evolution; Titania Nanotube Arrays; TNTA-CdS
Funding: Universitas Indonesia under contract NKB-386/UN2.RST/HKT.05.00/2021.NKB-386/UN2.RST/HKT.05.00/2021.

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