Biodiesel Production through Catalytic Microwave In-situ Transesterification of Micro-algae (Chlorella sp.)

*Mahfud Mahfud orcid scopus  -  Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
Ummu Kalsum  -  Chemical Engineering Department, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar 90231, Indonesia
Viqhi Ashwie  -  Chemical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
Received: 30 Oct 2019; Revised: 28 Dec 2019; Accepted: 10 Jan 2020; Published: 18 Feb 2020; Available online: 15 Feb 2020.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Renewable Energy Development

Citation Format:
Article Info
Section: Int. Conf. of Chemical Process and Product Engineering 2019
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 110 149
Abstract
Aim of this research are to study and develop research related to the potential of Chlorella sp. into biodiesel with the help of microwaves in-situ transesterification by characterizing parameters such as microwave power (300; 450; 600 W) and reaction time (10; 30; 50 minutes) with catalyst concentration of KOH and molar ratio of microalga : methanol are 2% and 1:12 respectively and optimized by response surface methodology with Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). The study was carried out by dissolving the catalyst into methanol according to the variable which was then put into a reactor containing microalgae powder in the microwave and turned on according to the predetermined variable. After the reaction process is complete, the mixture is filtered and resuspended with methanol for 10 minutes to remove the remaining FAME and then the obtained filtrate is cooled. Water is added to the filtrate solution to facilitate the separation of hydrophilic components before being separated and pushed apart until 3 layers are formed. Amount of FAMEs in the first layer formed were extracted with n-hexane solution and washed with water and the FAME product obtained was then distilled to remove the remaining n hexane and then weighed. The results indicated that yield increased with increasing reaction time and microwave power with the best conditions of 50 minutes each and 440.53 watts with the highest yield reaching 35.72% (dry basis) through using of KOH catalysts with low concentrations, 2%.©2020. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
Keywords
Biodiesel; Chlorella sp.; In-situ Transesterification; Microalgae; Microwave

Article Metrics:

  1. Akubude, V. C., Nwaigwe, K. N., and Dintwa, E. (2018). Production of bodiesel from microalgae via nanocatalyzed trans-esterification process: A review. Materials Science for Energy Technologies. 2, 216-225
  2. Al-Ameri, M., and Al-Zuhair, S. (2019). Using switchable solvents for enhanced, simultaneous microalgae oil extraction-reaction for biodiesel production. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 141, 217–224.
  3. Ananyev, G., Carrieri, D., and Dismukes, G. C. (2008). Optimization of metabolic capacity and flux through environmental cues to maximize hydrogen production by the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(19), 6102–6113.
  4. Bahadar, A., and Bilal Khan, M. (2013). Progress in energy from microalgae: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 27, 128–148.
  5. Boldor, D., (2012) Microwave Transesterification. In Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering-2 Volume Set (Print Version) (pp. 1-7). CRC Press
  6. Chisti, Y. (2007). Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnology Advances, 25(3), 294–306.
  7. Dai, Y. M., Chen, K. T., and Chen, C. C. (2014). Study of the microwave lipid extraction from microalgae for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Journal, 250, 267–273.
  8. De Luna, M. D. G., Doliente, L. M. T., Ido, A. L., and Chung, T. W. (2017). In situ trans-esterification of Chlorella sp. microalgae using LiOH-pumice catalyst. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(3), 2830–2835.
  9. Gude, V. G., Patil, P., Martinez-Guerra, E., and Deng, S. (2013). Microwave energy potential for biodiesel production. Sustainable Chemical Processes, 15, 1–31.
  10. Kusuma H.S. and Mahfud, M. (2016). Response Surface Methodology for Optimization Studies of Microwaveassisted Extraction of Sandalwood Oil. J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 7(6), 1958-1971
  11. Kalsum, U., Kusuma H.S., Roesyadi, A. and Mahfud, M., (2018). Production Biodiesel via In-situ Trans-esterification from Chlorella sp. using Microwave with Base Catalyst. Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 56(5), 773-778
  12. Khan, S. A., Rashmi, Hussain, M. Z., Prasad, S., and Banerjee, U. C. (2009). Prospects of biodiesel production from microalgae in India. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(9), 2361–2372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.04.005
  13. Mahfud, M., Suryanto, A., Qadariyah, L., Suprapto, S., and Kusuma, H. S. (2018). Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester from Microalgae Using Microwave: Kinetic of Trans-esterification Reaction Using CaO Catalyst. Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 56(2), 275-280.
  14. Martinez-Guerra, E., and Gude, V. G. (2016). Alcohol effect on microwave-ultrasound enhanced trans-esterification reaction. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 101, 1–7.
  15. Martinez-Guerra, E., Gude, V. G., Mondala, A., Holmes, W., and Hernandez, R. (2014). Microwave and ultrasound enhanced extractive-trans-esterification of algal lipids. Applied Energy, 129, 354–363.
  16. Patil, P. D., Gude, V. G., Mannarswamy, A., Cooke, P., Munson-McGee, S., Nirmalakhandan, N., Lammers P., Deng, S. (2011). Optimization of microwave-assisted trans-esterification of dry algal biomass using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology, 102(2), 1399–1405.
  17. Prartono, T. R. I., Kawaroe, M., Sari, D. W., and Augustine, D. (2010). Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 17(4), 196-200.
  18. Quitain, A. T., Katoh, S., and Goto, M. (2011). Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Biofuels. Biofuel Production-Recent Developments and Prospects, 16, 415-. Armando T. Quitain, Shunsaku Katoh and Motonobu Goto (2011). Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Biofuels,Biofuel Production-Recent Developments and Prospects, Dr. Marco Aurelio Dos Santos Bernardes (Ed.), ISBN:978-953-307-478-8, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen com/ books/biofuel-production-recent-developments-and-prospects/microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-biofuels
  19. Ramesh, V., Narendrakumar, G., Thyagarajan, R., and Melchias, G. (2018). Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology A comparative analysis of biodiesel production and its properties from Leptolyngbya sp . BI-107 and Chlorella vulgaris under heat shock stress. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 16, 502–506.
  20. Velasquez-Orta, S. B., Lee, J. G. M., and Harvey, A. (2012). Alkaline in situ trans-esterification of Chlorella vulgaris. Fuel, 94, 544–550.
  21. Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Zhang, X., and Tan, T. (2015). Biodiesel production by direct trans-esterification of microalgal biomass with co-solvent. Bioresource Technology, 196, 712–715