skip to main content

Modeling and Experimental Studies on Water Spray Cooler for Commercial Photovoltaic Modules

1School of Engineering and Technology, Hue University, Hue, Viet Nam

2Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

3School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Received: 5 May 2022; Revised: 14 Jun 2022; Accepted: 20 Jun 2022; Available online: 28 Jun 2022; Published: 1 Nov 2022.
Editor(s): Soulayman Soulayman
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

This paper presents modeling and experimental studies on water spray coolers for commercial photovoltaic modules. This paper has compared the energy yield of four photovoltaic commercial modules that were installed with a fixed tilt angle being equal to the local latitude in central Vietnam, including one photovoltaic module using a water spray cooler and three photovoltaic modules without cooling. Experimental results on sunny days have been shown that the energy yield difference between four PV modules under the same working condition is lower than 1%. In addition, on sunny days when the set working temperature of the water spray cooler is 45 °C, the average improvement efficiency of a photovoltaic module using a water spray cooler compared to three reference photovoltaic modules is 2.64%, 3.83%, and 6.18%, for an average of 4.22%. A simple thermal–electrical model of a photovoltaic module with a water spray cooler has been developed and tested. The normalized root mean square error between simulated and measured results of photovoltaic module power output on a sunny day without cooling and with water spray cooler reached 6.5% and 8.5%, respectively. The obtained results are also demonstrated that the reasonableness of the simple thermal–electrical model of the photovoltaic module with water spray cooler and the feasibility of a cooling system is improved to increase the efficiency of the photovoltaic module. In addition, they can be considered as a basis for new experimental models in the future.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Thermal–electrical model; photovoltaic; cooler; efficiency

Article Metrics:

  1. Abe, C. F., Dias, J. B., Notton, G. and Faggianelli, G. A. (2020). Experimental application of methods to compute solar irradiance and cell temperature of photovoltaic modules. Sensors 20(9): 2490.
  2. Al-Shahri, O. A., Ismail, F. B., Hannan, M., Lipu, M. H., Al-Shetwi, A. Q., Begum, R., Al-Muhsen, N. F. and Soujeri, E. (2021). Solar photovoltaic energy optimization methods, challenges and issues: A comprehensive review. Journal of Cleaner Production 284: 125465.
  3. Aste, N., Del Pero, C. and Leonforte, F. (2017). Water PVT collectors performance comparison. J Energy Procedia 105: 961-966.
  4. Benato, A. and Stoppato, A. (2019). An experimental investigation of a novel low-cost photovoltaic panel active cooling system. Energies 12(8): 1448.
  5. Bhandari, K. P., Collier, J. M., Ellingson, R. J. and Apul, D. S. (2015). Energy payback time (EPBT) and energy return on energy invested (EROI) of solar photovoltaic systems: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews 47: 133-141.
  6. Branker, K., Pathak, M. and Pearce, J. M. (2011). A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews 15(9): 4470-4482.
  7. da Silva, V. O., Martinez‐Bolanos, J. R., Heideier, R. B., Gimenes, A. L. V., Udaeta, M. E. M. and Saidel, M. A. (2021). Theoretical and experimental research to development of water‐film cooling system for commercial photovoltaic modules. IET Renewable Power Generation 15(1): 206-224.
  8. Dinçer, İ. and Zamfirescu, C. (2016). Drying phenomena: theory and applications, John Wiley & Sons
  9. Dorobanţu, L. and Popescu, M. O. (2013). Increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic panels through cooling water film. UPB Sci. Bull., Series C 75(4): 223-232
  10. Hachicha, A. A., Ghenai, C. and Hamid, A. K. (2015). Enhancing the performance of a photovoltaic module using different cooling methods. Int. J. Energy Power Eng 9(9): 1106-1109.
  11. Huang, B., Lei, J. and Bo, Y. (2012). The reading data error analysis of 1-wire bus digital temperature sensor DS18B20. 2012 Proceedings of International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control, IEEE
  12. Jones, A. and Underwood, C. (2001). A thermal model for photovoltaic systems. Solar Energy 70(4): 349-359.
  13. Karabulut, M., Kusetogullari, H. and Kivrak, S. (2020). Outdoor performance assessment of new and old photovoltaic panel technologies using a designed multi-photovoltaic panel power measurement system. International Journal of Photoenergy 2020.
  14. Koestoer, R., Pancasaputra, N., Roihan, I. and Harinaldi (2019). A simple calibration methods of relative humidity sensor DHT22 for tropical climates based on Arduino data acquisition system. AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP Publishing LLC.
  15. Kordzadeh, A. (2010). The effects of nominal power of array and system head on the operation of photovoltaic water pumping set with array surface covered by a film of water. Renewable Energy 35(5): 1098-1102.
  16. Marion, B. (2008). Comparison of predictive models for photovoltaic module performance. 2008 33rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, IEEE.
  17. Meral, M. E. and Dincer, F. (2011). A review of the factors affecting operation and efficiency of photovoltaic based electricity generation systems. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews 15(5): 2176-2184.
  18. Mohanraj, M., Chandramohan, P., Sakthivel, M. and Kamaruzzaman, S. (2019). Performance of photovoltaic water pumping systems under the influence of panel cooling. Renewable Energy Focus 31: 31-44.
  19. Ngo, X. C. and Do, N. Y. (2022). The Impact of Electrical Energy Consumption on the Payback Period of a Rooftop Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System: A case Study from Vietnam. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 11(2): 581-588.
  20. Ngo, X. C., Nguyen, T. H. and Do, N. Y. (2022). A Comprehensive Assessment of a Rooftop Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System: A Case Study for Central Vietnam. International Energy Journal 22(1)
  21. Nižetić, S., Čoko, D., Yadav, A. and Grubišić-Čabo, F. (2016). Water spray cooling technique applied on a photovoltaic panel: The performance response. Energy conversion management 108: 287-296.
  22. Perovic, B., Klimenta, D., Jevtic, M. and Milovanovic, M. (2019). A transient thermal model for flat-plate photovoltaic systems and its experimental validation. Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika 25(2): 40-46.
  23. Phap, V. M. and Nga, N. T. (2020). Feasibility Study Of Rooftop Photovoltaic Power System For A Research Institute Towards Green Building In Vietnam. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy Web 7(27).
  24. Santhakumari, M. and Sagar, N. (2019). A review of the environmental factors degrading the performance of silicon wafer-based photovoltaic modules: Failure detection methods and essential mitigation techniques. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews 110: 83-100.
  25. Schiro, F., Benato, A., Stoppato, A. and Destro, N. (2017). Improving photovoltaics efficiency by water cooling: Modelling and experimental approach. Energy 137: 798-810.
  26. Shahverdian, M. H., Sohani, A. and Sayyaadi, H. (2021). Water-energy nexus performance investigation of water flow cooling as a clean way to enhance the productivity of solar photovoltaic modules. Journal of Cleaner Production 312: 127641.
  27. Sohani, A., Shahverdian, M. H., Sayyaadi, H., Hoseinzadeh, S. and Memon, S. (2021). Enhancing the renewable energy payback period of a photovoltaic power generation system by water flow cooling. International Journal of Solar Thermal Vacuum Engineering 3(1): 73-85.
  28. Wang, Y., Liu, M., Liu, D., Xu, K. and Chen, Y. (2010). Experimental study on the effects of spray inclination on water spray cooling performance in non-boiling regime. Experimental Thermal Fluid Science 34(7): 933-942.
  29. Yang, L.-H., Liang, J.-D., Hsu, C.-Y., Yang, T.-H. and Chen, S.-L. (2019). Enhanced efficiency of photovoltaic panels by integrating a spray cooling system with shallow geothermal energy heat exchanger. Renewable Energy 134: 970-981.
  30. Yang, L., Yao, T., Liu, G., Sun, L., Yang, N., Zhang, H., Zhang, S., Yang, Y., Pang, Y. and Liu, X. (2019). Monitoring and control of medical air disinfection parameters of nosocomial infection system based on internet of things. Journal of Medical Systems 43(5): 1-7.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.