skip to main content

Implementing of Restorative Justice to Build the Criminal Justice System in Indonesia: A Study of the Batak Toba Justice System

Nur Rochaeti orcid scopus  -  Faculty of Law, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
*Mujiono Hafidh Prasetyo orcid scopus  -  Faculty of law, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Ji Hyun Park  -  Faculty of Law, Youngsan University, South Korea
Open Access Copyright 2023 LAW REFORM under

Citation Format:

The pursuit of fairness and harmony between the realization of rights and duties is a cornerstone of human progress. Restorative justice case resolution represents an endeavor to introduce a non-punitive procedure into Indonesia's criminal justice system as part of its ongoing effort to modernize its legal framework. Restorative justice focuses on healing criminal behavior's harm and shattered relationships. This study examined the feasibility of implementing restorative justice aspects into a national criminal justice system, gaining inspiration from the Toba Batak Indigenous People. The methodology was socio-legal. Dalihan Natolu is recognized as an alternative conflict settlement method for Toba Batak. The traditional leader mediates in this conflict resolution. By Batak customary law, the imposition of sanctions is decided by customary judges or kings. Dalihan Natolu then tells the culprit not to repeat his behavior. Dalihan Natolu involves offenders, victims, families of offenders and victims, and other parties in seeking a fair settlement that emphasizes repair above retribution. This helps Dalihan Natolu solve criminal concerns. In indigenous cultures, customary institutions convene the parties engaged in a crime to provide counsel and find solutions that do not harm or profit only one side. Justice is served, and the victim is not harmed.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Implementing; Criminal Justice System; Restorative Justice; Toba Indigenous Peoples; Dalihan Natolu.
Funding: Universitas Diponegoro under contract MetMu123456

Article Metrics:

  1. Adawiyah, Robiatul., & Rozah, Umi. (2020). Indonesia’s Criminal Justice System with Pancasila Perspective as an Open Justice System. Law Reform, Vol.16, (No.2),pp.149-162.
  2. Ajah, Benjamin Okorie., Chinweze, Uzochukwu Chinweze., Ajah, Ifeyinwa Angela., Onyejegbu, Dominic Chukwuemeka., Obiwulu, Aloysius C., Onwuama, Emeka M., & Okpa, John Thompson. (2022). Behind Bars But Not Sentenced: The Role of Computerized Central Repository in Addressing Awaiting-Trial Problems in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. SAGE Open, Vol.12,(No.1).
  3. Aji, Wikan Sinatrio. (2019). The Implementation of Diversion and Restorative Justice in the Juvenile Criminal Justice System in Indonesia. Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies,Vol.4,(No.1),pp.73–88.
  4. Andini, Orin Gusta., Nilasari., & Eurian, Andreas Avelino. (2023). Restorative Justice in Indonesia Corruption Crime: A Utopia. Legality : Jurnal Ilmiah Hukum, Vol.31,(No.1),pp.72–90.
  5. Braithwaite, J. (1999). Restorative Justice: Assessing Optimistic and Pessimistic Accounts. Crime and Justice, Vol.25, pp.1–127. 1147608
  6. Bronsther, J. (2019). Torture and Respect. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol.109,(No.3),pp.423–490.
  7. Burns, Courtney Julia., & Sinko, Laura. (2021). Restorative Justice for Survivors of Sexual Violence Experienced in Adulthood: A Scoping Review. Sage Journals,Vol.24,Issue2. 1177/15248380211029408
  8. Dimyati, Khudzaifah., & Angkasa. (2018). Victimological Approaches to Crime of Rape in Indonesian Criminal Justice System. Hasanuddin Law Review, Vol.4,(No.3),pp.366-376.DOI: 10.20956/halrev.v4i3.1292
  9. Durkheim, E. (1973). Two Laws of Penal Evolution. Economy and Society, Vol.2,(No.3),pp.285–308. 10.1080/03085147300000014
  10. Elmayanti., & R, Mukhlis. (2022). Penerapan Hukum Adat Dalam Penyelesaian Perkara Pidana Melalui Konsep Restorative Justice di Kabupaten Rokan Hulu Provinsi Riau. Riau Law Journal,Vol.4,(No.2),pp.212-230.
  11. Gadama, Luis., Thakwalakwa, Chrissie., Mula, Chimwemwe., Mhango, Victor., Banda, Chikosa., Kewley, Stephanie., Hillis, Alyson., & Van Hout, Marie-Clarie. (2020). Prison facilities were not built with a woman in mind’: An exploratory multi-stakeholder study on women’s situation in Malawi prisons. International Journal of Prisoner Health, Vol.16, (No.3), pp.303–318.
  12. Gilligan, J. (2000). Punishment and Violence: Is the Criminal Law Based on One Huge Mistake? Social Research: An International Quarterly, Vol.67,(No.3), pp.745–772. https://www.researchgate. net/publication/288383270_Punishment_and_violence_Is_the_criminal_law_based_on_one_huge_mistake
  13. Gude, Alejandra Díaz., & Papic, Ivan Navarro. (2020). Restorative Justice and Legal Culture. Criminology & Criminal Justice, Vol.20,(No.1),pp.57–75. 10.1177/1748895818796549
  14. Hafizh, Ramdani Abd., Chairi, Ahmad Ramdani., Dirasid., Krisnaputra, Raka Febrian., & Ali, Irvan. (2021). Effectivity of Restorative Justice Meets The Just Nature Of Indonesia Society. Unram Law Review,Vol.5,(No.1),pp.99–108.
  15. Hopkins, B. (2002). Restorative Justice in Schools. Support for Learning, Vol.17, (No.3),pp.144-149.
  16. Huang, Lanying., Sheu, Chuen-Jim., Lu, Yi-Fen., Yu, Yi-Chun., & Umbreit, Mark S. (2022). Restorative Justice (XIU-FU-SHI-SI-FA) in Taiwan: Traditional Practices and Modern Developments. Asian Journal of Criminology, Vol.18, pp.189–208.
  17. London, R. (2014). Victims and Restorative Justice. In Bruinsma, G. & Weisburd, D. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Springer New York, pp. 5451-5461.
  18. Maculan, Elena., & Gil Gil, Alicia. (2020). The Rationale and Purposes of Criminal Law and Punishment in Transitional Contexts. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Vol.40,(No.1)pp.132–157.
  19. Morris, Patrice K. (2008). Imprisoned in Jamaica: An Exploratory Study of Inmate Experiences and Differential Responses to Prison Life in a Developing Country. International Criminal Justice Review, Vol.18,(No.4),pp.435–454. /10.1177/1057567708325706
  20. Murhula, Patrick Bashizi Bashige., & Tolla, Aden Dejene. (2021). The Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices on Victims of Crime: Evidence from South Africa. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, Vol.10,(No.1),pp. 98–110.
  21. Niriella, M.A.D.S.J.S. (2013). Emergence of Restorative Justice in Sri Lanka: A Review Essay. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, Vol.37, Issue 3, pp. 233-247. DOI: 10.1080/14791420.2012.734441
  22. Novianti, D. (2020). Dampak Napi Asimilasi Terhadap Naiknya Angka Kriminalitas Nasional di Masa Pandemi. Sol Justicia, Vol.3,(No2),pp.154–164. https://ojs.ukb.
  23. Nugroho, Khrisna Lintang S. (2021). Criminal Law Policy of Justice Collaborator in Corruption Crime Case. Law Reform, Vol.17,(No.1),pp.24-35.
  24. Pali, Brunilda., & Maglione, Giuseppe. (2021). Discursive Representations of Restorative Justice In International Policies. European Journal of Criminology,Vol.20,Issue2. 10.1177/14773708211013025
  25. Posner, Richard A. (1985). An Economic Theory of the Criminal Law. Columbia Law Review,Vol.85,(No.6),pp.1193–1231.
  26. Rochaeti, Nur., Prasetyo, Mujiono Hafidh., Rozah, Umi., & Park, Jihyun. (2023). A Restorative Justice System in Indonesia: A Close View from the Indigenous Peoples’ Practices. Sriwijaya Law Review,Vol.7,(Issues1)pp.87-104. http://
  27. Rochaeti, Nur., Prasetyo, Mujiono Hafidh., & Wibawa, Kadek Cahya Susila. (2023). Restorative Justice In The Customary Jurisdiction of The Dayak Tribe Communities of West Kalimantan. Russian Law Journal, Vol.XI, (Issue 3), pp.23-31.
  28. Rona, Marina., Safa’at, Rachmad., Madjid, Abdul., & Fadli, Mohammad. (2020). Restorative Justice In The Settlement of Traffic Accident Causing Death Toll According To The Perspective of Customary Judiciary In Sanggau District, West Kalimantan. Yustisia, Vol.9, (No.1), pp.139-151. yustisia.v9i1.39351
  29. Saibih, Junaedi., Danil, Elwi., Warman, Kurnia., & Mulyati, Nani. (2023). The Analysis of Transitional Justice Initiatives and The Flaw of Prosecution on The Past Human Rights Violation in Indonesia (Tanjung Priok Case). Indonesian Journal of International Law, Vol.20,(No.3),pp.173-216.
  30. Simanjuntak, Efendy Lod., & Kostruba, Anatoliy V. (2023). Application of Universal Jurisdiction Principles to Cross-Country Money Laundering. Law Reform, Vol. 19,(No.1),pp.40-60.
  31. Sulaiman., Adli, Muhammad., & Mansur, Teuku Muttaqin. (2019). Ketidakteraturan Hukum Pengakuan dan Perlindungan Masyarakat Hukum Adat di Indonesia. Law Reform, Vol. 15, (No. 1), pp. 12-24.
  32. Suzuki, Masahiro., & Jenkins, Tamera. (2022). Apology–forgiveness cycle in restorative justice, but how?. Sage Journals, Vol.29, Issue2.
  33. Triasari, Devi., Hanum, Willy Naresta., & Firmandiaz, Viddy. (2023). Mapping Restorative Justice in Information and Electronic Transaction Criminal Regulation. Journal of Human Rights, Culture and Legal System, Vol. 3, (No.1), pp.1-16. v3i1.75
  34. Viggiani, Nick D. (2007). Unhealthy Prisons: Exploring Structural Determinants of Prison Health. Sociology of Health & Illness,Vol.29,(No.1),pp.115–135. 00474.x
  35. Wenzel, Michael., Okimoto, Tyler G., Feather, Norman T., & Platow, Michael J. (2008). Retributive and Restorative Justice. Law and Human Behavior, Vol.32, (No.5), pp.375–389. 979-007-9116-6
  36. Wulandari, Cahya., Pujirahayu, Esmi Warassih., Hiariej, Edward Omar Sharif., Hassan, Muhamad Sayuti., & Kambuno, Juan Anthonio. (2022). Penal Mediation: Criminal Case Settlement Process based on the Local Customary Wisdom of Dayak Ngaju. Lex Scientia Law Review, Vol.6,(No.1),pp.69-92. 15294/lesrev.v6i1.54896
  37. Zulyadi, Rizkan., & Hossain, Mohammed Belayet. (2022). Alternative Criminal Punishments for the Settlement of Misdemeanor in a Social Justice Perspective. Law Reform, Vol.18, (No.1),pp.43-57.
  38. Sherman, Lawrence W., Goottfredson, Denise C., Mackenzie, Doris L., Eck, John., Reuter, Peter., & Bushway, Shaun D. (1998). Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from pdffiles/1716 76.pdf
  39. Bolivar, Daniela., Aertsen, Ivo., & Vanfraechem, Inge. (2013). The Ritual of Apology and Restorative Justice: Exploring the Victim’s Perspective In: Public Apology between Ritual and Regret. Netherlands: Brill
  40. DS, Dewi., Syukur, Fatahillah A., & Retno, Triani. (2011). Mediasi Penal: Penerapan Restorative Justice Di Pengadilan Anak Indonesia. Depok : Indie Publishing
  41. Dubber, Markus D. (2006). Victims in the War on Crime: The Use and Abuse of Victims’ Rights (Vol. 47). New York: NYU Press
  42. Irianto, Sulistyowati., Otto, Jan Michiel., Bedner, Adriaan W., Pompe, Sebastiaan., Vel, Jacqueline., Moelyono, Tristam., Stoter, Suzan., Arnscheidt, Julia., & Wirastri, Theresia Dyah. (2012). Kajian Sosio-Legal. Denpasar: Pustaka Larasan
  43. MacKenzie, D L. (2006). What Works in Corrections: Reducing the Criminal Activities of Offenders and Deliquents. New York: Cambridge University Press
  44. Sudarto. (1977). Hukum dan Hukum Pidana. Bandung: Alumni
  45. Sullivan, Dennis., & Tifft, Larry. (2007). Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective. New York: Routledge
  46. Sembiring, Rusnidar. Head of Civil Law Department of Faculty of Law Universitas Sumatera Utara. Medan: August 9th, 2022
  47. Ringo, Batahan Siringo. Head of Customary Institution of Samosir District. Samosir: 11 August 11st, 2022

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-06-16 19:15:00

No citation recorded.