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A Comparative Study of Regression Models and Meteorological Parameters to Estimate the Global Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface for Baghdad City, Iraq

1Energy and Renewable Energies Technology Center, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

2Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad, Iraq

3Mechanical Eng. Dept., University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

Received: 21 May 2021; Revised: 6 Aug 2021; Accepted: 1 Sep 2021; Available online: 20 Sep 2021; Published: 1 Feb 2022.
Editor(s): H. Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract

In this study, data of the monthly average of daily global solar radiation falling on a horizontal surface, relative humidity, maximum temperature, and duration of sunshine for the city of Baghdad were collected through two sources. First, from the Iraqi Meteorological Authority (IMA) for a period extending from 1961 to 2016. The second is from NASA, for the period from 1984 to 2004. Then, four linear regression models, two single and two polynomials were formulated to calculate the values of the monthly average of daily global horizontal solar radiation (GHSR) incidents. The models calculated the monthly average of daily extraterrestrial radiation and day length, using some data provided by NASA and the IMA. To ensure the validity of the used models, a statistical test was performed for the performance of the proposed models, using the indicators mean bias Error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) as well as mean percentage error (MPE). The validation shows the relationship between the measured and computed values (through the analysis of the results), where a great convergence was found between the measured and calculated values. This means that the proposed models can be adapted to predict global solar radiation. The highest values of measured solar radiation were during the month of June, which were 28.555 and 27.280 MJ/m2/day from the IMA and NASA, respectively. The same applies to the radiation calculated using the four empirical models. The month of June was the highest in terms of solar radiation values. The radiation values were 28.947, 26.315, 29.699, and 26.716 MJ/m2/day for the first, second, third, and fourth models, respectively. The lowest values of measured and calculated radiation were during the month of December. Always, radiation measured by the IMA was greater than those of NASA, as well as the values of radiation calculated in the two IMA-based models were greater than the other two NSA-based models. In the absence of a method for measuring the diffuse and direct (beam) solar radiations, as well as the lack of such values by meteorological authorities, and its paramount importance, they were reported to mathematically calculate them in this study. The values of statistical indicators RMSE; MJ/m2/day, MBE; MJ/m2/day and MPE% were (0.4769, 0.0164, 0.2207), (0.8641, 0.1773, -0.9680), (0.6420, 0.3996, -1.1487), (0.9604, 0.218, -1.0225) for the first, second, third and fourth models, respectively. According to the results of the statistical test, it can be indicated that the single linear regression model, based on the IMA’s data (model No.1), is the most accurate to calculate global solar radiation for Baghdad City.

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Keywords: Global solar radiation, Iraqi meteorological authority; linear regression model; meteorological Data; NASA; sunshine duration;

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